Table 4-16
International technology alliances worldwide, by regional ownership and technology focus: 1991–2001
 
       
Ownership categories All
technologies
Information
technology
Biotechnology
  Counts
Alliances by companies from all countries 5,892 2,471 1,829
U.S.-owned only 2,297 1,133 699
U.S.-Europe owned 1,562 516 609
Europe-owned only 637 154 217
U.S.-Japan owned 439 259 93
U.S.-NT owned 348 159 90
Europe-NT owned 213 59 60
Europe-Japan owned 192 86 32
Japan-owned only 96 55 8
NT-owned only 56 20 15
Japan-NT owned 52 30 6
Selected groupings      
Alliances by U.S. companies 4,646 2,067 1,491
Alliances by European companies 2,604 815 918
Alliances by Japanese companies 779 430 139
Alliances by NT companies 669 268 171
  Percent distribution
Ownership profile      
Alliances by companies from all countries 100 100 100
U.S.-owned only 39 46 38
U.S.-Europe owned 27 21 33
Europe-owned only 11 6 12
U.S.-Japan owned 7 10 5
U.S.-NT owned 6 6 5
Europe-NT owned 4 2 3
Europe-Japan owned 3 3 2
Japan-owned only 2 2 0
NT-owned only 1 1 1
Japan-NT owned 1 1 0
Selected groupings      
Alliances by U.S. companies 79 84 82
Alliances by European companies 44 33 50
Alliances by Japanese companies 13 17 8
Alliances by NT companies 11 11 9
Technology profile      
Alliances by companies from all countries 100 42 31
U.S.-owned only 100 49 30
U.S.-Europe owned 100 33 39
Europe-owned only 100 24 34
U.S.-Japan owned 100 59 21
U.S.-NT owned 100 46 26
Europe-NT owned 100 28 28
Europe-Japan owned 100 45 17
Japan-owned only 100 57 8
NT-owned only 100 36 27
Japan-NT owned 100 58 12
Selected groupings      
Alliances by U.S. companies 100 44 32
Alliances by European companies 100 31 35
Alliances by Japanese companies 100 55 18
Alliances by NT companies 100 40 26
 
NT non-Triad (country or region other than United States, Europe, and Japan)

NOTES: Percents may not sum to total because of rounding. Data are annual counts of new technology alliances formed by domestic and multinational corporations worldwide. Alliances may be classified in more than one technology. Country assignment is based on headquarters of ultimate parent company of alliance members, not on location of members. Data were revised from previous editions to include exclusively joint research or development agreements, R&D contracts, equity joint ventures, and research corporations. Previous counts included cross-holdings (two companies take minority interest in each other), mutual second sourcing, and cross-licensing agreements. This change, however, had little effect on overall trends. See appendix table 4-42.

SOURCE: Maastricht Cooperative Agreements and Technology Indicators database, Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology, unpublished tabulations.
 
Science & Engineering Indicators — 2004
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