Table 4-18
Academic R&D expenditures, by country and source of funds: 1981, 1990, and 2000
(Percent)
 
Country and source of funds 1981 1990 2000
Canada      
Government 78.8 75.0 59.9
Other 17.1 20.0 31.2
Industry 4.1 5.0 8.9
France      
Government 97.7 92.9 91.5
Other 1.0 2.2 5.8
Industry 1.3 4.9 2.7
Germany      
Government 98.2 92.1 85.9
Other 0.0 0.0 2.5
Industry 1.8 7.9 11.6
Italya      
Government 96.2 96.7 94.4
Other 1.1 0.9 0.8
Industry 2.7 2.4 4.8
Japan      
Government 57.8 51.2 50.2
Other 41.2 46.5 47.3
Industry 1.0 2.3 2.5
United Kingdom      
Government 81.3 73.5 64.7
Other 15.9 18.9 28.2
Industry 2.8 7.6 7.1
United States      
Government 74.1 66.9 65.0
Other 21.5 26.2 27.9
Industry 4.4 6.9 7.1
 
aItalian data are for 1999.

SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Science and Technology Statistics database, 2003; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (Arlington, VA, annual series).
 
Science & Engineering Indicators — 2004
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