Table 4-19
Shares of academic R&D expenditures, by country and S&E field: 1998 or 1999
 
Field United
States
Japan Germany Australia South
Korea
Spain Sweden Russia
  Billions of 1995 PPP dollars
Total academic R&D 25.7 13.4 7.5 1.9 1.5 1.8 1.6 0.4
  Percent distribution
Total academic R&D                
NS&E 93.7 65.6 78.4 73.0 91.6 77.9 76.3 88.3
Natural sciences 41.8 11.4 29.2 27.5 18.5 39.4 21.0 59.0
Engineering 15.5 25.0 20.3 16.1 49.1 18.7 21.9 26.7
Medical sciences 29.1 24.6 24.7 22.8 17.0 14.2 27.4 1.7
Agricultural sciences 7.4 4.6 4.2 6.6 7.0 5.6 6.1 0.9
Social sciences and humanities 6.3 34.4 20.6 27.0 8.4 22.1 17.6 11.7
Social sciences 6.3 NA 8.5 19.5 NA 14.8 11.5 6.6
Humanities NA NA 12.1 7.6 NA 7.3 6.1 5.1
Academic NS&E                
NS&E 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Natural sciences 44.6 17.3 37.3 37.7 20.2 50.6 27.5 66.8
Engineering 16.5 38.2 25.9 22.1 53.6 24.0 28.7 30.2
Medical sciences 31.0 37.5 31.5 31.2 18.5 18.2 35.9 1.9
Agricultural sciences 7.9 7.0 5.3 9.0 7.7 7.2 7.9 1.1
 
NA detail not available but included in totals
NS&E natural sciences and engineering
PPP purchasing power parity

NOTES: Percents may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Data for Australia, South Korea, and Russia are for 1998; all other data are for 1999.

SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Science and Technology Statistics database, 2003; and Centre for Science Research and Statistics, Russian Science and Technology at a Glance: 2000 (Moscow, 2001).
 
Science & Engineering Indicators — 2004
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