Table 5-29
U.S. patents that cite S&E literature, by nationality of inventor: 1990, 1996, and 2001
 
  1990 U.S. patents    1996 U.S. patents    2001 U.S. patents
  Total Citing S&E
literature
  Total Citing S&E
literature
  Total Citing S&E
literature
  Number
U.S. patents 90,379 6,367   109,687 12,894   166,039 21,155
Nationality of inventor Percent distribution
Worldwide 100.0 100.0   100.0 100.0   100.0 100.0
North America 54.5 64.9   57.6 66.8   55.0 68.1
Canada 2.1 1.7   2.0 2.0   2.2 2.6
Mexico 0.0 0.1   0.0 0.1   0.0 0.0
United States 52.4 63.1   55.5 64.7   52.8 65.4
Western Europe 21.1 18.3   16.4 15.5   18.1 16.8
France 3.2 3.0   2.6 2.7   2.4 2.5
Germany 8.4 6.1   6.2 4.5   6.8 4.8
Italy 1.4 0.8   1.1 0.8   1.0 0.9
Netherlands 1.1 1.3   0.7 0.8   0.8 0.9
Sweden 0.8 0.4   0.8 0.7   1.0 0.9
Switzerland 1.4 1.7   1.1 0.9   0.9 1.1
United Kingdom 3.1 3.7   2.3 3.1   3.2 3.3
Other 1.6 1.3   1.6 1.9   2.0 2.3
Asia 22.8 15.6   24.3 15.9   25.9 12.7
Japan 21.6 15.2   21.0 14.7   20.0 10.6
Emerging East Asia 1.2 0.3   3.3 1.1   5.8 1.8
Other 0.0 0.1   0.0 0.1   0.1 0.3
Other regions/countries 1.6 1.3   1.7 1.8   1.6 2.4
 
NOTES: Emerging East Asia consists of China, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. The number of U.S. patents and nationality of inventor are based on U.S. patents that reference S&E articles in journals classified and tracked by the Institute of Scientific Information’s Science Citation Index. Percents may not sum to 100 because of rounding.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; Institute for Scientific Information, Science Citation Index; CHI Research, Inc.; National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations.
 
Science & Engineering Indicators — 2004
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