Table 6-1
Classification of manufacturing industries based on average R&D intensity: 1991–97
 
    R&D intensity
Industry ISIC rev. 3 Totala United
States
Total manufacturing 15-37 2.5 3.1
High-technology industries      
Aircraft and spacecraft 353 14.2 14.6
Pharmaceuticals 2423 10.8 12.4
Office, accounting, and computing machinery 30 9.3 14.7
Radio, television, and communication equipment 32 8.0 8.6
Medical, precision, and optical instruments 33 7.3 7.9
Medium-high-technology industries      
Electrical machinery and apparatus NEC 31 3.9 4.1
Motor vehicles, trailers, and semi-trailers 34 3.5 4.5
Chemicals excluding pharmaceuticals 24 excl. 2423 3.1 3.1
Railroad equipment and transport equipment NEC 352 + 359 2.4 na
Machinery and equipment NEC 29 1.9 1.8
Medium-low-technology industries      
Coke, refined petroleum products, and nuclear fuel 23 1.0 1.3
Rubber and plastic products 25 0.9 1.0
Other nonmetallic mineral products 26 0.9 0.8
Building and repairing of ships and boats 351 0.9 nab
Basic metals 27 0.8 0.4
Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment 28 0.6 0.7
Low-technology industries      
Manufacturing NEC and recycling 36-37 0.4 0.6
Wood, pulp, paper, paper products, printing, and publishing 20-22 0.3 0.5
Food products, beverages, and tobacco 15-16 0.3 0.3
Textiles, textile products, leather, and footwear 17-19 0.3 0.2
 
ISIC International Standard Industrial Classification
na not applicable
NEC not elsewhere classified

aAggregate R&D intensities calculated after converting R&D expenditures and production using 1995 gross domestic product purchasing power parities.
bR&D expenditures in “shipbuilding” (351) are included in “other transport” (352 + 359).

NOTE: R&D intensity is direct R&D expenditures as a percent of production (gross output).

SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ANBERD and STAN databases, May 2001.
 
Science & Engineering Indicators — 2004
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