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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Scientists and engineers as share of workforce: 1999 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 67.30% Maryland: 11.16% Delaware: 11.84% New Hampshire: 9.46% Massachusetts: 14.03% New Jersey: 9.63% Alaska: 8.04% Alabama: 5.91% Arizona: 6.43% Arkansas: 4.68% California: 9.53% Colorado: 12.01% Connecticut: 11.85% Florida: 5.71% Georgia: 6.82% Idaho: 6.82% Illinois: 7.87% Indiana: 6.17% Iowa: 5.75% Kansas: 8.42% Kentucky: 4.61% Louisiana: 4.85% Maine: 8.23% Michigan: 6.95% Minnesota: 10.05% Mississippi: 4.65% Missouri: 6.60% Montana: 7.43% Nebraska: 7.21% Nevada: 4.19% New Mexico: 9.27% New York: 10.09% North Carolina: 8.69% North Dakota: 6.45% Ohio: 6.98% Oklahoma6.08% Oregon: 8.59% Pennsylvania: 8.00% Rhode Island: 8.81% South Carolina: 6.25% South Dakota: 7.42% Tennessee: 5.60% Hawaii: 8.26% Texas: 6.96% Utah: 7.44% Vermont: 10.20% Virginia: 10.12% Washington: 10.70% West Virginia: 4.85% Wisconsin: 6.30% Wyoming: 8.90%

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for scientists and engineers as share of workforce: 1999*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(67.30% - 9.53%) (9.46% - 7.44%) (7.43% - 6.25%) (6.17% - 4.19%)
California Alaska Arizona Alabama
Colorado Hawaii Georgia Arkansas
Connecticut Illinois Idaho Florida
Delaware Kansas Michigan Indiana
District of Columbia Maine Missouri Iowa
Maryland New Hampshire Montana Kentucky
Massachusetts New Mexico Nebraska Louisiana
Minnesota North Carolina North Dakota Mississippi
New Jersey Oregon Ohio Nevada
New York Pennsylvania South Carolina Oklahoma
Vermont Rhode Island South Dakota Tennessee
Virginia Utah Texas West Virginia
Washington Wyoming Wisconsin  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT); and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See table 8-9.

Findings top

  • In 1999, 10.9 million scientists and engineers were employed in the United States, up from 10.1 million in 1995.

  • The nation's overall workforce grew at essentially the same rate, keeping the proportion of scientists and engineers at around 8 percent of the civilian workforce for the period.

  • Large workforce shares of scientists and engineers are evident on both U.S. coasts and in the southern Rocky Mountain area.

Description top

This indicator shows the extent to which a state's workforce provides a labor pool with the training to work in technical areas or in jobs with technical content. Scientists and engineers are people with a bachelor's or higher degree in a science or engineering field or who worked in an S&E occupation in 1993.

Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates based on the Current Population Survey. BLS data are based on residence location, whereas data for scientists and engineers are largely classified based on work location. Because of this difference and the sample-based nature of the data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.


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