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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

S&E occupations as share of workforce: 1999 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 20.48% Maryland: 3.89% Delaware: 4.34% New Hampshire: 2.94% Massachusetts: 4.68% New Jersey: 3.02% Alaska: 2.58% Alabama: 2.12% Arizona: 2.47% Arkansas: 1.44% California: 3.13% Colorado: 4.41% Connecticut: 3.48% Florida: 1.74% Georgia: 2.19% Idaho: 2.51% Illinois: 2.54% Indiana: 1.88% Iowa: 1.56% Kansas: 2.26% Kentucky: 1.39% Louisiana: 1.82% Maine: 1.74% Michigan: 2.66% Minnesota: 3.11% Mississippi: 1.34% Missouri: 2.22% Montana: 1.91% Nebraska: 2.24% Nevada: 1.20% New Mexico: 3.75% New York: 2.56% North Carolina: 2.50% North Dakota: 1.44% Ohio: 2.41% Oklahoma: 1.76% Oregon: 2.61% Pennsylvania: 2.51% Rhode Island: 2.94% South Carolina: 2.00% South Dakota: 1.80% Tennessee: 1.64% Hawaii: 2.09% Texas: 2.61% Utah: 2.41% Vermont: 3.84% Virginia: 3.62% Washington: 3.47% West Virginia: 2.16% Wisconsin: 1.90% Wyoming: 1.93%

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for individuals in S&E occupations as share of workforce: 1999*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(20.48% - 3.02%) (2.94% - 2.41%) (2.41% - 1.88%) (1.82% - 1.20%)
California Alaska Alabama Arkansas
Colorado Arizona Georgia Florida
Connecticut Idaho Hawaii Iowa
Delaware Illinois Indiana Kentucky
District of Columbia Michigan Kansas Louisiana
Maryland New Hampshire Missouri Maine
Massachusetts New York Montana Mississippi
Minnesota North Carolina Nebraska Nevada
New Jersey Ohio South Carolina North Dakota
New Mexico Oregon Utah Oklahoma
Vermont Pennsylvania West Virginia South Dakota
Virginia Rhode Island Wisconsin Tennessee
Washington Texas Wyoming  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT); and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See table 8-10.

Findings top

  • In 1999, about 3.5 million people worked in occupations classified as S&E.

  • The concentration of S&E occupations in the workforce varied little since 1995, averaging 2.5–2.6 percent across the United States.

  • States located in the Northeast, Southwest, and West Coast tend to be in the top two quartiles on this measure. The District of Columbia is an outlier.

Description top

This indicator shows the extent to which a state's workforce is college educated and employed in science and engineering occupations. A high value for this indicator shows that a state's economy has a high percentage of technical jobs relative to other states.

S&E occupations include mathematical, computer, life, physical, and social scientists; engineers; and postsecondary teachers in any of these S&E fields. People with job titles such as manager are excluded.

Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates based on the Current Population Survey. BLS data are based on residence location, whereas data on people in S&E occupations are largely based on work location. Because of this difference and the sample-based nature of the data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.


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