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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce: 2001 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 4.85% Maryland: 0.83% Delaware: 0.85% New Hampshire: 0.37% Massachusetts: 0.89% New Jersey: 0.55% Alaska: 0.40% Alabama: 0.26% Arizona: 0.29% Arkansas: 0.22% California: 0.50% Colorado: 0.51% Connecticut: 0.56% Florida: 0.21% Georgia: 0.30% Idaho: 0.28% Illinois: 0.36% Indiana: 0.32% Iowa: 0.28% Kansas: 0.30% Kentucky: 0.24% Louisiana: 0.27% Maine: 0.30% Michigan: 0.36% Minnesota: 0.41% Mississippi: 0.26% Missouri: 0.32% Montana: 0.33% Nebraska: 0.31% Nevada: 0.19% New Mexico: 0.95% New York: 0.51% North Carolina: 0.42% North Dakota: 0.32% Ohio: 0.36% Oklahoma: 0.27% Oregon: 0.41% Pennsylvania: 0.44% Rhode Island: 0.51% South Carolina: 0.28% South Dakota: 0.25% Tennessee: 0.33% Hawaii: 0.46% Texas: 0.32% Utah: 0.43% Vermont: 0.53% Virginia: 0.49% Washington: 0.52% West Virginia: 0.24% Wisconsin: 0.30% Wyoming: 0.32%

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce: 2001*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(4.85% - 0.50%) (0.49% - 0.34%) (0.33% - 0.29%) (0.28% - 0.19%)
California Alaska Arizona Alabama
Colorado Hawaii Georgia Arkansas
Connecticut Idaho Indiana Florida
Delaware Illinois Kansas Iowa
District of Columbia Michigan Maine Kentucky
Maryland Minnesota Missouri Louisiana
Massachusetts New Hampshire Montana Mississippi
New Jersey North Carolina Nebraska Nevada
New Mexico Ohio North Dakota Oklahoma
New York Oregon Tennessee South Carolina
Rhode Island Pennsylvania Texas South Dakota
Vermont Utah Wisconsin West Virginia
Washington Virginia Wyoming  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients; and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See table 8-11.

Findings top

  • In 2001, fewer than 0.5 percent of the workforce held an S&E doctorate, little changed from 1993.

  • Although the number of employed S&E doctorate holders increased by 24 percent from 1993 to 2001, the size of the total workforce rose at nearly the same rate.

  • States in the top quartile tend to be home to major research laboratories, research universities, or research-intensive industries.

  • The District of Columbia is an outlier.

Description top

This indicator shows a state's tendency to attract and retain highly trained scientists and engineers. Such people often conduct research and development, manage R&D activities, or are otherwise engaged in knowledge-intensive activities. A high value for this indicator suggests employment opportunities in a state for individuals with highly advanced S&E training.

S&E includes physical, earth, ocean, atmospheric, life, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. S&E doctorate holders exclude those with doctorates from foreign institutions. The location of the doctorate holders primarily reflects where the individuals work. Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates based on the Current Population Survey, with location based on residence. Because of this difference and the sample-based nature of the data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.


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