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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Financial Research and Development Inputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

R&D as share of gross state product: 2000 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 3.83% Maryland: 4.67% Delaware: 4.11% New Hampshire: 1.64% Massachusetts: 4.59% New Jersey: 3.67% Alaska: 0.70% Alabama: 1.45% Arizona: 2.02% Arkansas: 0.68% California: 4.14% Colorado: 2.50% Connecticut: 3.02% Florida: 0.99% Georgia: 0.95% Idaho: 3.90% Illinois: 2.74% Indiana: 1.71% Iowa: 1.13% Kansas: 1.68% Kentucky: 0.74% Louisiana: 0.43% Maine: 0.88% Michigan: 5.84% Minnesota: 2.31% Mississippi: 0.78% Missouri: 1.46% Montana: 0.78% Nebraska: 0.79% Nevada: 0.50% New Mexico: 5.87% New York: 1.70% North Carolina: 1.85% North Dakota: 0.79% Ohio: 2.07% Oklahoma: 0.73% Oregon: 1.74% Pennsylvania: 2.46% Rhode Island: 4.16% South Carolina: 1.85% South Dakota: 0.36% Tennessee: 1.16% Hawaii: 0.69% Texas: 1.56% Utah: 1.99% Vermont: 2.57% Virginia: 1.94% Washington: 4.82% West Virginia: 1.12% Wisconsin: 1.56% Wyoming: 0.32%

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for R&D as share of GSP: 2000*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(5.87% - 2.74%) (2.57% - 1.68%) (1.64% - 0.79%) (0.79% - 0.32%)
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Connecticut Colorado Florida Arkansas
Delaware Indiana Georgia Hawaii
District of Columbia Kansas Iowa Kentucky
Idaho Minnesota Maine Louisiana
Illinois New York Missouri Mississippi
Maryland North Carolina Nebraska Montana
Massachusetts Ohio New Hampshire Nevada
Michigan Oregon South Carolina North Dakota
New Jersey Pennsylvania Tennessee Oklahoma
New Mexico Utah Texas South Dakota
Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wyoming
Washington Virginia Wisconsin  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources; and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross State Product Data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor. See table 8-12.

Findings top

  • In 2000, R&D accounted for about 2.5 percent of U.S. gross domestic product, fluctuating in the 2.4–2.7 percent range over the past decade.

  • Although the state distribution on this indicator bears some similarity to that of doctoral-level scientists and engineers in the workforce, it also reflects the different costs associated with different types of R&D.

  • Changes in both R&D projects and GSP growth trends affect this indicator, especially for small state economies or states with large research facilities. In fact, some states experienced considerable shifts in R&D intensity over the decade, as measured by this indicator.

Description top

This indicator shows the extent to which research and development play a role in a state's economy. A high value indicates that the state has a high intensity of R&D activity that may support future growth in knowledge-based industries.

R&D refers to R&D activities performed by Federal agencies, industry, universities, and other nonprofit organizations. Data for the value of gross state product (GSP) and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.


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