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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Financial Research and Development Inputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker: 2000 Puerto Rico: $69 District of Columbia: $8,113 Maryland: $3,237 Delaware: $175 New Hampshire: $531 Massachusetts: $1,283 New Jersey: $469 Alaska: $493 Alabama: $791 Arizona: $471 Arkansas: $96 California: $878 Colorado: $599 Connecticut: $462 Florida: $295 Georgia: $643 Idaho: $347 Illinois: $225 Indiana: $168 Iowa: $173 Kansas: $165 Kentucky: $107 Louisiana: $130 Maine: $376 Michigan: $195 Minnesota: $289 Mississippi: $313 Missouri: $311 Montana: $210 Nebraska: $107 Nevada: $260 New Mexico: $2,623 New York: $334 North Carolina: $266 North Dakota: $191 Ohio: $325 Oklahoma: $116 Oregon: $270 Pennsylvania: $404 Rhode Island: $803 South Carolina: $131 South Dakota: $98 Tennessee: $270 Hawaii: $370 Texas: $269 Utah: $259 Vermont: $222 Virginia: $1,374 Washington: $460 West Virginia: $308 Wisconsin: $147 Wyoming: $136

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for federal R&D obligations per civilian worker: 2000*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
($8,113 - $471) ($469 - $295) ($289 - $175) ($173 - $96)
Alabama Connecticut Delaware Arkansas
Alaska Florida Illinois Indiana
Arizona Hawaii Michigan Iowa
California Idaho Minnesota Kansas
Colorado Maine Montana Kentucky
District of Columbia Mississippi Nevada Louisiana
Georgia Missouri North Carolina Nebraska
Maryland New Jersey North Dakota Oklahoma
Massachusetts New York Oregon South Carolina
New Hampshire Ohio Tennessee South Dakota
New Mexico Pennsylvania Texas Wisconsin
Rhode Island Washington Utah Wyoming
Virginia West Virginia Vermont  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development; and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See table 8-13.

Findings top

  • Federal Government obligations to the states totaled $63.8 billion in 1992, $66.1 billion in 1996, and $71.0 billion in 2000 for R&D.

  • Per civilian worker, this yielded a declining average over the period—$538 at the beginning of the period to $519 in 2000—because the workforce grew faster than Federal R&D funding.

  • The state-by-state picture is marked by many sharp increases and decreases over the decade, reflecting both changes in jobs and changes in the level of Federal R&D funds.

  • A high score is evident for states in the national capital area. Overall, the distribution of funds is highly skewed, with only 11 states above the state average.

Description top

This indicator shows how Federal research and development funding is disbursed geographically relative to the size of states' civilian workforces. Federal R&D funding is largely for development, but it may provide direct and indirect benefits to a state's economy and may stimulate the conduct of basic research. A high value for this indicator may indicate the existence of major federally funded R&D facilities or the presence of large defense contractors in the state.

Federal R&D dollars are counted where they are obligated; they may be expended in many locations. Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates based on the Current Population Survey, with location based on residence. Because of these differences and the sample-based nature of the population data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.


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