|Quartile groups for industry-performed
R&D as share of private-industry output: 2000*
|(6.08% - 2.23%)
||(2.18% - 1.33%)
||(1.29% - 0.47%)
||(0.44% - 0.04%)
||District of Columbia
|*States in alphabetical order, not data order.
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial
Research and Development; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross State Product
data; and European Commission, Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators, 2003.
See table 8-15.
- The state total of industry-performed R&D reached $187.5 billion in
2000, up from $117.0 billion in 1991.
- Throughout the period, U.S. private industry devoted 2.0–2.3 percent of
its output to R&D.
- Broadly comparable figures for the European Union (1999) and Japan (1998),
as reported by the European Commission, were 1.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively.
- A wide margin between top and bottom quartiles marks this indicator. Large
differences among states may reflect differences in industry structure or
in R&D intensities of individual firms, whereas major shifts within a
state over the decade probably reflect the behavior of large firms in the
This indicator measures the emphasis that private industry places on research
and development. Industrial R&D focuses on projects that are expected to
yield new or improved products, processes, or services and thus bring direct
benefits to the company.
Differences among states on this indicator should be interpreted with caution.
Because industries differ in reliance on R&D, the indicator reflects state
differences in industrial structure as much as the behavior of individual companies.
Furthermore, industrial R&D data for states with small economies may have
high imputation rates and imprecise estimates.