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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Financial Research and Development Inputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output: 2000 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 0.29% Maryland: 1.33% Delaware: 4.26% New Hampshire: 1.34% Massachusetts: 3.82% New Jersey: 3.73% Alaska: 0.04% Alabama: 0.60% Arizona: 1.81% Arkansas: 0.47% California: 3.85% Colorado: 2.09% Connecticut: 2.95% Florida: 0.78% Georgia: 0.61% Idaho: 4.20% Illinois: 2.54% Indiana: 1.57% Iowa: 0.68% Kansas: 1.56% Kentucky: 0.57% Louisiana: 0.10% Maine: 0.64% Michigan: 6.08% Minnesota: 2.23% Mississippi: 0.18% Missouri: 1.21% Montana: 0.15% Nebraska: 0.42% Nevada: 0.37% New Mexico: 2.66% New York: 1.47% North Carolina: 1.54% North Dakota: 0.32% Ohio: 1.81% Oklahoma: 0.44% Oregon: 1.53% Pennsylvania: 2.18% Rhode Island: 3.42% South Carolina: 0.82% South Dakota: 0.21% Tennessee: 0.77% Hawaii: 0.13% Texas: 1.36% Utah: 1.67% Vermont: 2.51% Virginia: 1.27% Washington: 4.89% West Virginia: 0.69% Wisconsin: 1.29% Wyoming: 0.04%

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output: 2000*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(6.08% - 2.23%) (2.18% - 1.33%) (1.29% - 0.47%) (0.44% - 0.04%)
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Connecticut Colorado Arkansas District of Columbia
Delaware Indiana Florida Hawaii
Idaho Kansas Georgia Louisiana
Illinois Maryland Iowa Mississippi
Massachusetts New Hampshire Kentucky Montana
Michigan New York Maine Nebraska
Minnesota North Carolina Missouri Nevada
New Jersey Ohio South Carolina North Dakota
New Mexico Oregon Tennessee Oklahoma
Rhode Island Pennsylvania Virginia South Dakota
Vermont Texas West Virginia Wyoming
Washington Utah Wisconsin  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development; U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross State Product data; and European Commission, Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators, 2003. See table 8-15.

Findings top

  • The state total of industry-performed R&D reached $187.5 billion in 2000, up from $117.0 billion in 1991.

  • Throughout the period, U.S. private industry devoted 2.0–2.3 percent of its output to R&D.

  • Broadly comparable figures for the European Union (1999) and Japan (1998), as reported by the European Commission, were 1.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively.

  • A wide margin between top and bottom quartiles marks this indicator. Large differences among states may reflect differences in industry structure or in R&D intensities of individual firms, whereas major shifts within a state over the decade probably reflect the behavior of large firms in the state.

Description top

This indicator measures the emphasis that private industry places on research and development. Industrial R&D focuses on projects that are expected to yield new or improved products, processes, or services and thus bring direct benefits to the company.

Differences among states on this indicator should be interpreted with caution. Because industries differ in reliance on R&D, the indicator reflects state differences in industrial structure as much as the behavior of individual companies. Furthermore, industrial R&D data for states with small economies may have high imputation rates and imprecise estimates.


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