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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Research and Development Outputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Academic article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2001 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 446 Maryland: 889 Delaware: 737 New Hampshire: 574 Massachusetts: 752 New Jersey: 569 Alaska: 351 Alabama: 632 Arizona: 746 Arkansas: 385 California: 753 Colorado: 544 Connecticut: 672 Florida: 589 Georgia: 599 Idaho: 347 Illinois: 679 Indiana: 551 Iowa: 691 Kansas: 574 Kentucky: 425 Louisiana: 556 Maine: 195 Michigan: 596 Minnesota: 465 Mississippi: 366 Missouri: 603 Montana: 406 Nebraska: 521 Nevada: 379 New Mexico: 287 New York: 633 North Carolina: 604 North Dakota: 410 Ohio: 540 Oklahoma: 356 Oregon: 515 Pennsylvania: 641 Rhode Island: 525 South Carolina: 488 South Dakota: 215 Tennessee: 499 Hawaii: 374 Texas: 688 Utah: 525 Vermont: 434 Virginia: 486 Washington: 563 West Virginia: 344 Wisconsin: 632 Wyoming: 345

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2001*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(889 - 632) (604 - 540) (525 - 406) (385 - 195)
Alabama Colorado District of Columbia Alaska
Arizona Florida Kentucky Arkansas
California Georgia Minnesota Hawaii
Connecticut Indiana Montana Idaho
Delaware Kansas Nebraska Maine
Illinois Louisiana North Dakota Mississippi
Iowa Michigan Oregon Nevada
Maryland Missouri Rhode Island New Mexico
Massachusetts New Hampshire South Carolina Oklahoma
New York New Jersey Tennessee South Dakota
Pennsylvania North Carolina Utah West Virginia
Texas Ohio Vermont Wyoming
Wisconsin Washington Virginia  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: Institute for Scientific Information, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index; CHI Research, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. See table 8-18.

Findings top

  • The state average of this indicator declined between 1993 and 2001.

  • During this period, the number of scientific and technical articles remained fairly constant at 140,000–150,000, whereas the number of S&E doctorate holders employed in academia rose from 210,000 to 245,000.

  • The indicator values of many states were volatile between 1993 and 2001.

  • In 2001, the states with the highest values for this indicator were spread across the nation.

Description top

The volume of peer-reviewed articles per 1,000 academic science and engineering doctorate holders is an approximate measure of their contribution to scientific knowledge. Publications are only one measure of academic productivity, which includes trained personnel, patents, and other outputs. A high value on this indicator shows that the S&E faculty in a state's academic institutions are generating a high volume of publications relative to other states.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals was 4,601 in 1993, 5,029 in 1997, and 5,262 in 2001. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles.


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