|Quartile groups for academic
articles output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2001*
|(7.00 - 5.06)
||(5.02 - 4.52)
||(4.39 - 3.74)
||(3.72 - 1.61)
|District of Columbia
|*States in alphabetical order, not data order.
SOURCES: Institute for Scientific Information, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences
Citation Index; CHI Research, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science
Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures.
- From 1993 to 2001, the number of academic publications remained fairly constant
at 140,000–150,000 annually.
- In 2001, academic researchers produced an average of 4.5 publications per
$1 million academic R&D, compared with 7.3 in 1993. This partly reflects
the effects of general price inflation but may also indicate rising academic
- The value of this indicator decreased for all states between 1993 and 2001.
This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic publications
and the expenditure for academic research and development. A high value for
this indicator means that a state's academic institutions have a high publications
output relative to their R&D spending. This indicator is not an efficiency
measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing
conventions in different fields and institutions and thus reflects variations
in field emphasis among states and institutions.
Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set
of journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information's Science Citation
Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals was 4,601 in
1993, 5,029 in 1997, and 5,262 in 2001. Articles with authors in different institutions
were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution
was credited with 1/N articles. In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures
by the Applied Physics Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University.