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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Research and Development Outputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2001 Puerto Rico: 2.92 District of Columbia: 5.32 Maryland: 2.95 Delaware: 7.00 New Hampshire: 3.44 Massachusetts: 6.14 New Jersey: 5.00 Alaska: 1.61 Alabama: 4.26 Arizona: 4.39 Arkansas: 4.32 California: 4.10 Colorado: 4.59 Connecticut: 5.55 Florida: 4.27 Georgia: 3.62 Idaho: 3.74 Illinois: 5.47 Indiana: 5.30 Iowa: 5.06 Kansas: 4.65 Kentucky: 4.56 Louisiana: 4.23 Maine: 3.44 Michigan: 4.59 Minnesota: 5.09 Mississippi: 2.86 Missouri: 4.76 Montana: 3.05 Nebraska: 4.18 Nevada: 3.86 New Mexico: 2.84 New York: 5.02 North Carolina: 4.52 North Dakota: 3.20 Ohio: 5.10 Oklahoma: 3.63 Oregon: 4.20 Pennsylvania: 4.96 Rhode Island: 6.04 South Carolina: 3.72 South Dakota: 4.08 Tennessee: 5.40 Hawaii: 3.43 Texas: 4.03 Utah: 4.64 Vermont: 5.36 Virginia: 5.08 Washington: 4.73 West Virginia: 4.91 Wisconsin: 4.18 Wyoming: 4.56

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for academic articles output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2001*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(7.00 - 5.06) (5.02 - 4.52) (4.39 - 3.74) (3.72 - 1.61)
Connecticut Colorado Alabama Alaska
Delaware Kansas Arizona Georgia
District of Columbia Kentucky Arkansas Hawaii
Illinois Michigan California Maine
Indiana Missouri Florida Maryland
Iowa New Jersey Idaho Mississippi
Massachusetts New York Louisiana Montana
Minnesota North Carolina Nebraska New Hampshire
Ohio Pennsylvania Nevada New Mexico
Rhode Island Utah Oregon North Dakota
Tennessee Washington South Dakota Oklahoma
Vermont West Virginia Texas South Carolina
Virginia Wyoming Wisconsin  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: Institute for Scientific Information, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index; CHI Research, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures. See table 8-19.

Findings top

  • From 1993 to 2001, the number of academic publications remained fairly constant at 140,000–150,000 annually.

  • In 2001, academic researchers produced an average of 4.5 publications per $1 million academic R&D, compared with 7.3 in 1993. This partly reflects the effects of general price inflation but may also indicate rising academic research costs.

  • The value of this indicator decreased for all states between 1993 and 2001.

Description top

This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic publications and the expenditure for academic research and development. A high value for this indicator means that a state's academic institutions have a high publications output relative to their R&D spending. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions and thus reflects variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals was 4,601 in 1993, 5,029 in 1997, and 5,262 in 2001. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles. In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University.


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