|Quartile groups for academic
patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 1999*
|(26.7 - 15.0)
||(14.9 - 9.5)
||(9.5 - 5.3)
||(5.1 - 0.0)
||District of Columbia
|*States in alphabetical order, not data order.
SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and
Universities�Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969�2000; and National Science Foundation,
Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.
- The number of patents awarded to academic institutions more than doubled
between 1993 and 1999, from about 1,600 to 3,300, whereas the number of academic
S&E doctorate holders rose by 14 percent.
- In 1999, 14 patents were produced for each 1,000 S&E doctorate holders
employed in academia, which was almost double the number in 1993.
- The rise in this indicator suggests that states and their universities
may be focusing on academic patenting more than in the past.
- States vary widely on this indicator, which ranges from 0 to 27 patents
per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia.
Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed
as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the results
of academic research and development in terms of its role in developing new
products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is
the volume of academic patents. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and
partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.
This indicator relates the volume of academic patents to the size of the doctoral
S&E workforce in academia. It is an approximate measure of the degree to
which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic
S&E doctorates include physical, life, computer, earth, atmospheric, ocean,
and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates
and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.