bypass top and left hand navigationNational Science Board   HOME     PDF     SEARCH     HELP     COMMENTS  
Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
  Table of Contents     Figures     Tables     Appendix Tables     Presentation Slides  
Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



Data Tools
Tell us what you think about the new state indicators chapter

State Indicators

PDFPrint this chapter (2.34MB)
Research and Development Outputs

Select Indicator:

Quartiles | Findings | Description

Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 1999 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 5.1 Maryland: 24.4 Delaware: 3.0 New Hampshire: 7.8 Massachusetts: 20.7 New Jersey: 18.4 Alaska: 0.0 Alabama: 15.0 Arizona: 6.5 Arkansas: 18.7 California: 26.7 Colorado: 4.1 Connecticut: 10.1 Florida: 13.5 Georgia: 12.8 Idaho: 0.0 Illinois: 9.5 Indiana: 4.7 Iowa: 23.7 Kansas: 12.4 Kentucky: 10.4 Louisiana: 5.3 Maine: 0.8 Michigan: 15.5 Minnesota: 15.4 Mississippi: 6.9 Missouri: 14.9 Montana: 7.8 Nebraska: 12.7 Nevada: 3.3 New Mexico: 8.0 New York: 14.6 North Carolina: 15.5 North Dakota: 7.7 Ohio: 9.5 Oklahoma: 8.7 Oregon: 7.5 Pennsylvania: 16.5 Rhode Island: 11.1 South Carolina: 4.1 South Dakota: 1.5 Tennessee: 6.3 Hawaii: 5.9 Texas: 11.4 Utah: 15.3 Vermont: 6.1 Virginia: 10.7 Washington: 10.5 West Virginia: 0.9 Wisconsin: 17.3 Wyoming: 5.1

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 1999*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(26.7 - 15.0) (14.9 - 9.5) (9.5 - 5.3) (5.1 - 0.0)
Alabama Connecticut Arizona Alaska
Arkansas Florida Hawaii Colorado
California Georgia Illinois Delaware
Iowa Kansas Louisiana District of Columbia
Maryland Kentucky Mississippi Idaho
Massachusetts Missouri Montana Indiana
Michigan Nebraska New Hampshire Maine
Minnesota New York New Mexico Nevada
New Jersey Ohio North Dakota South Carolina
North Carolina Rhode Island Oklahoma South Dakota
Pennsylvania Texas Oregon West Virginia
Utah Virginia Tennessee Wyoming
Wisconsin Washington Vermont  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities´┐ŻUtility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969´┐Ż2000; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. See table 8-20.

Findings top

  • The number of patents awarded to academic institutions more than doubled between 1993 and 1999, from about 1,600 to 3,300, whereas the number of academic S&E doctorate holders rose by 14 percent.

  • In 1999, 14 patents were produced for each 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, which was almost double the number in 1993.

  • The rise in this indicator suggests that states and their universities may be focusing on academic patenting more than in the past.

  • States vary widely on this indicator, which ranges from 0 to 27 patents per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia.

Description top

Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the results of academic research and development in terms of its role in developing new products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is the volume of academic patents. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.

This indicator relates the volume of academic patents to the size of the doctoral S&E workforce in academia. It is an approximate measure of the degree to which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic workforce.

S&E doctorates include physical, life, computer, earth, atmospheric, ocean, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.


  Top Of Page