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Science and Engineering Indicators 2004
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Chapter 8:
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Financial Research and Development Inputs
R&D Outputs
Science and Technology in the Economy



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State Indicators

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Research and Development Outputs

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Quartiles | Findings | Description

Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 1999 Puerto Rico: NA District of Columbia: 1.2 Maryland: 15.8 Delaware: 27.2 New Hampshire: 36.2 Massachusetts: 25.7 New Jersey: 36.1 Alaska: 8.6 Alabama: 10.9 Arizona: 29.1 Arkansas: 13.4 California: 38.3 Colorado: 20.5 Connecticut: 35.2 Florida: 24.7 Georgia: 18.0 Idaho: 81.5 Illinois: 27.8 Indiana: 30.5 Iowa: 34.2 Kansas: 15.8 Kentucky: 19.5 Louisiana: 14.6 Maine: 12.9 Michigan: 30.6 Minnesota: 35.6 Mississippi: 14.0 Missouri: 17.8 Montana: 16.5 Nebraska: 11.5 Nevada: 33.0 New Mexico: 12.5 New York: 32.0 North Carolina: 20.9 North Dakota: 16.2 Ohio: 30.1 Oklahoma: 19.4 Oregon: 31.9 Pennsylvania: 28.5 Rhode Island: 24.0 South Carolina: 17.4 South Dakota: 11.1 Tennessee: 22.9 Hawaii: 8.3 Texas: 25.2 Utah: 29.7 Vermont: 29.0 Virginia: 9.3 Washington: 20.1 West Virginia: 10.1 Wisconsin: 37.5 Wyoming: 12.1

Quartiles top

Quartile groups for patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 1999*
1st Quartile 2nd Quartile 3rd Quartile 4th Quartile
(81.5 - 30.5) (30.1 - 20.9) (20.5 - 14.0) (13.4 - 1.2)
California Arizona Colorado Alabama
Connecticut Delaware Georgia Alaska
Idaho Florida Kansas Arkansas
Indiana Illinois Kentucky District of Columbia
Iowa Massachusetts Louisiana Hawaii
Michigan North Carolina Maryland Maine
Minnesota Ohio Mississippi Nebraska
Nevada Pennsylvania Missouri New Mexico
New Hampshire Rhode Island Montana South Dakota
New Jersey Tennessee North Dakota Virginia
New York Texas Oklahoma West Virginia
Oregon Utah South Carolina Wyoming
Wisconsin Vermont Washington  
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Information Products Division/Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, All Patents, All Types, January 1, 1977�December 31, 2001; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT). See table 8-21.

Findings top

  • The number of patents issued rose sharply between 1995 and 1999, from 64,500 to 94,000.

  • In 1999, the state average for this indicator was 26.7 patents per 1,000 individuals in an S&E occupation, compared with 20.3 in 1995.

  • The District of Columbia and Idaho were outliers, at 1.2 and 81.5, respectively, the latter reflecting the presence of a high-patenting Department of Energy National Laboratory in this sparsely populated state.

  • The remaining states' values ranged widely on this indicator, from 8.3 to 38.3 patents per 1,000 individuals.

Description top

This indicator shows state patent activity normalized to the size of its science and engineering workforce, specifically employees in S&E occupations. People in S&E occupations include computer, mathematical, life, physical, and social scientists; engineers; and post-secondary teachers in any of these fields. Managers, elementary and secondary school teachers, and medical personnel are excluded.

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office classifies patents based on the residence of the first-named inventor. Only U.S.-origin patents are included.

Because of the different methods of assigning geographic location to the two indicator measures, this indicator is of limited applicability for sparsely populated states or for locations where a large percentage of the population lives in one state or region and works in another.


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