The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science
Foundation for preparing this report. Organizational responsibility for the volume was assigned
to the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, Norman M. Bradburn, Assistant Director.
Primary responsibility for the production of the volume was assigned to the Science and
Engineering Indicators Program under the direction of Rolf Lehming of the Division of Science Resources
Statistics (SRS); Lynda T. Carlson, Division Director; Mary J. Frase, Deputy Division Director.
Overview. Rolf Lehming, SRS
Chapter 1. Martha Alt, Xianglei Chen, Susan Choy, Jennifer Laird, MPR Associates
Chapter 2. Jean M. Johnson, SRS, Terry S. Woodin, EHR
Chapter 3. Mark C. Regets, SRS
Chapter 4. Francisco A. Moris, Brandon Shackelford, SRS
Chapter 5. Alan Rapoport, Derek Hill, SRS
Chapter 6. Lawrence M. Rausch, SRS
Chapter 7. Melissa F. Pollak, SRS
Chapter 8. Paula C. Dunnigan, Greg A. Palovchik, Taratec Corporation
Alan Rapoport, John Gawalt, and Rolf Lehming directed the physical production of the volume,
which benefited from extensive contributions from SRS staff. The division's senior staff and survey
managers assured timely availability of data under often stringent deadlines: Richard J. Bennof,
Joan S. Burrelli, Leslie J. Christovich, Mary J. Golladay, Susan T. Hill, John E. Jankowski,
Kelly H. Kang, Nirmala Kannankutty, Mary M. Machen, Ronald L. Meeks, John Tsapogas, and Raymond M. Wolfe.
Robert K. Bell, Mary J. Frase, and Judith S. Sunley rendered critical assistance in preparation and
review; Ronald S. Fecso provided advice with statistical and data presentation issues. Deborah A. Collins,
Raj S. Raut, Tanya R. Gore, Maurya Green, and Terri S. Smith offered support with graphics and logistics.
The preparation of this report has benefited from close involvement of the National Science Board,
from the development of narrative outlines to intensive reviews involving all board members. Their generous
contribution of time, effort, and expertise under often stringent schedules is gratefully acknowledged.
National Science Board staff provided crucial input and assistance at all stages of the project. Michael
P. Crosby provided vital coordination, and Cathy Hines ably served as Executive Secretary to the Science
and Engineering Indicators Subcommittee, taking over from Mary Poats.
Many others beyond the authors, National Science Board members and NSB and SRS staff provided
invaluable assistance as reviewers or offered valuable substantive and statistical comments and expertise
to this report. They are listed as Reviewers and Contributors.
The report was edited by Beverly Cook and associates of Aspen Systems Corporation, under the
direction of Rolfe W. Larson; Cheryl S. Roesel and Tanya R. Gore provided additional editing services.
Eileen Kessler and the staff of OmniStudio, Inc., provided composition and production services for the
print and electronic materials. John R. Gawalt and Alan I. Rapoport produced the Information Cards. Web
site design, coding, and final production was managed by Peg Whalen and performed by De Q. Vo, Bridget
Tuthill, Elise Manalang, Jason Shaffer, Moe Than, and Jennifer Nowak of Compuware Corporation.
NSF's Office of Legislative and Public Affairs (OLPA), under the guidance of Curt Suplee, Director,
provided media and Congressional liaison support for the report. Special thanks go to Bill Noxon and
David Hart for media support and to David M. Stonner for Congressional relations support. Patricia S.
Williams and her staff in the Division of Acquisition and Cost Support provided contractual assistance
throughout the project.
Model of the potassium channel in the bacterium Streptomyces lividans.
Roderick MacKinnon's discovery of the details of this structure and his explanation
for how membranes pass electrical charge through cell walls led to his 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The potassium ion is shown in red at the center of the channel in the symmetrical structure. The
surrounding four identical subunits of the protein are conserved in all known potassium ion channels.
MacKinnon's work was supported by the National Institutes of Health at the Cornell High Energy
Synchrotron Source (CHESS), a facility developed around an accelerator funded by the National
Science Foundation originally built for studies of high-energy physics. (Cover image reprinted with
permission from Science volume 280, number 5360, issue of 3 April 1998, copyright 1998 AAAS.)
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National Science Board. 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. Two volumes. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation (volume 1, NSB 04-1; volume 2, NSB 04-1A).