Advanced Placement: An opportunity to study college-level material while in high school and to demonstrate advanced proficiency in a subject by passing a rigorous exam.
Digital divide: The gap between those with access to new technologies and those without; this division tends to fall along socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines.
International Baccalaureate: An internationally recognized preuniversity course of study designed for secondary school students.
Out-of-field teaching: A mismatch between the subjects a teacher teaches and that teacher's academic training and/or certification.
Time-based course requirements: Requirements based on the number of years a student should take a particular subject; this type of requirement is losing popularity to those that set standards for the skills and content students need to learn.