Chapter 5: Academic Research and Development


Abilene: A high-performance network dedicated to research led by a consortium of universities, governments, and private industry; often called Internet2.

Academic institution: In the Financial Resources for Academic R&D section of this chapter, an institution that has a doctoral program in science or engineering, is a historically black college or university that expends any amount of separately budgeted R&D in S&E, or is some other institution that spends at least $150,000 for separately budgeted R&D in S&E. In the remaining sections, any accredited institution of higher education.

Cyberinfrastructure: Infrastructure based on distributed computer, information, and communication technology.

Federal obligations: Dollar amounts for orders placed, contracts and grants awarded, services received, and similar transactions during a given period, regardless of when funds were appropriated or payment was required.

Federally funded research and development center: R&D-performing organizations exclusively or substantially financed by the federal government either to meet particular R&D objectives or, in some instances, to provide major facilities at universities for research and associated training purposes; each FFRDC is administered either by an industrial firm, a university, or a nonprofit institution.

Innovation: Generation of new or improved products, processes, and services.

Intellectual property: Intangible property that is the result of creativity; the most common forms of intellectual property include patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets.

Net assignable square feet (NASF): The unit for measuring research space; NASF is the sum of all areas on all floors of a building assigned to, or available to be assigned to, an occupant for specific use, such as research or instruction.

Nontraditional student: One who does not move directly from high school to college; i.e., a transfer student, adult student, or part-time student.

Research space: the space used for sponsored R&D activities at academic institutions that is separately budgeted and accounted for.

Underrepresented minority: blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives are considered to be underrepresented in academic R&D.

National Science Board.