Table 5-28
Academic patenting and licensing activities: Selected years, 1991–2003
 
  1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
Activity indicator (98) (117) (127) (132) (139) (139) (165)
Millions of dollars
Net royalties NA 195.0 239.1 391.1 583.0 753.9 866.8
Gross royalties 130.0 242.3 299.1 482.8 675.5 868.3 1,033.6
Royalties paid to others NA 19.5 25.6 36.2 34.5 41.0 65.5
Unreimbursed legal fees expended 19.3 27.8 34.4 55.5 58.0 73.4 101.3
New research funding from licensesa NA NA 112.5 136.2 149.0 225.7 212.8
Number
Invention disclosures received 4,880 6,598 7,427 9,051 10,052 11,259 13,718
New U.S. patent applications filed 1,335 1,993 2,373 3,644 4,871 5,784 7,203
U.S. patents granted NA 1,307 1,550 2,239 3,079 3,179 3,450
Startup companies formed NA NA 169 258 275 402 348
Revenue-generating licenses/options 2,210 3,413 4,272 5,659 6,663 7,715 11,118
New licenses/options executed 1,079 1,737 2,142 2,707 3,295 3,300 3,855
Equity licenses/options NA NA 99 203 181 328 316
Percentb
Sponsored research funds 65 75 78 82 82 84 87
Federal research funds 79 85 85 90 90 92 94
 

NA = not available

aDirectly related to license or option agreement.
bOf national academic total represented by number of institutions reporting.

NOTES: Number of institutions reporting given in parentheses. See appendix table 5-55.

SOURCE: Association of University Technology Managers, AUTM Licensing Survey (various years). See appendix table 5-69.

 
Science and Engineering Indicators 2006