Chapter 8: State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Inputs

Select Indicator:

Quartiles | Findings | Description

Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross state product: 2003

Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross state product: 2003

Academic R&D per $1,000 of Gross State Product: 2003.


Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross state product: 2003*

1st Quartile
2nd Quartile
3rd Quartile
4th Quartile
Iowa Alabama Arizona Arkansas
Maryland Alaska Connecticut Delaware
Massachusetts California Illinois Florida
Mississippi Colorado Indiana Idaho
Montana District of Columbia Kansas Maine
Nebraska Georgia Kentucky Minnesota
New Hampshire Hawaii Louisiana Nevada
New Mexico Michigan Ohio New Jersey
North Dakota Missouri Oklahoma South Dakota
Pennsylvania New York South Carolina Virginia
Rhode Island North Carolina Tennessee West Virginia
Utah Oregon Texas Wyoming
Vermont Wisconsin Washington
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures; and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross State Product data. See table 8-30.

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  • Expenditures for research performed in academic institutions have doubled in a decade, rising from $19.4 billion in 1993 to $39.4 billion in 2003 (unadjusted for inflation).

  • Academic research increased more rapidly than gross domestic product (GDP), causing the value of this indicator to increase from $3.01 to $3.60 per $1,000 of GDP.

  • Most states showed increases in the value of this indicator over the past decade, although declines were observed in seven states.

  • States ranking high on the intensity of academic research usually did not rank high on the intensity of industrial research.

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This indicator measures the extent of spending on academic research performed in a state relative to the size of the state’s economy. Academic research and development is more basic and less product oriented than R&D performed by industry. It can be a valuable basis for future economic development. High values for this indicator may reflect an academic R&D system that can compete for funding from federal, state, and industrial sources.

In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 people and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research. Data for the value of gross state product and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.

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National Science Board.