Chapter 8: State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs

Select Indicator:

Quartiles | Findings | Description

Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2003

Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2003

Academic Article Output per $1 Million of Academic R&D: 2003.


Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2003*

1st Quartile
2nd Quartile
3rd Quartile
4th Quartile
Connecticut Arkansas Alabama Alaska
Delaware Colorado Arizona Georgia
District of Columbia Florida California Hawaii
Illinois Kansas Louisiana Idaho
Indiana Kentucky Maine Mississippi
Iowa Michigan Maryland Montana
Massachusetts Missouri Nebraska Nevada
Minnesota New York Oklahoma New Hampshire
New Jersey North Carolina South Carolina New Mexico
Ohio Oregon Texas North Dakota
Pennsylvania Tennessee Vermont South Dakota
Rhode Island Virginia Wisconsin West Virginia
Utah Washington Wyoming
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: Thomson ISI, Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures. See table 8-33.

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  • From 1993 to 2003, the number of academic publications rose from 142,000 to 156,000, an increase of 10%.

  • In 2003, academic researchers produced an average of 4.0 publications per $1 million of academic R&D, compared with 7.3 in 1993. This partly reflects the effects of general price inflation (27% during this period) but may also indicate rising academic research costs.

  • The value for this indicator decreased for all states between 1993 and 2003.

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This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic publications and the expenditure for academic research and development. A high value for this indicator means that a state’s academic institutions have a high publication output relative to their R&D spending. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions. It may reflect variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in Thomson ISI’s Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index. The number of journals in this set was 4,601 in 1993, 5,084 in 1998, and 5,315 in 2003. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author’s institution was credited with 1/N articles. In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 workers and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research.

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National Science Board.