Chapter 8: State Indicators

Research and Development Outputs

Select Indicator:

Quartiles | Findings | Description

Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 2003

Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 2003

Patents Awarded per 1,000 Individuals in S&E Occupations: 2003.


Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 2003*

1st Quartile
2nd Quartile
3rd Quartile
4th Quartile
California Arizona Florida Alabama
Connecticut Colorado Georgia Alaska
Idaho Delaware Kentucky Arkansas
Massachusetts Illinois Louisiana District of Columbia
Michigan Indiana Maine Hawaii
Minnesota Iowa Maryland Kansas
New Hampshire Nevada Missouri Mississippi
New Jersey North Carolina Montana Nebraska
New York Pennsylvania New Mexico North Dakota
Ohio Rhode Island Oklahoma South Dakota
Oregon Texas South Carolina Virginia
Vermont Utah Tennessee West Virginia
Wisconsin Washington Wyoming
*States in alphabetical order, not data order.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Office of Electronic Information Products, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, All Patents, All Types, January 1, 1977-December 31, 2003; and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. See table 8-35.

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  • Nearly 100,000 patents were awarded in the United States in 2003 with more than 22% going to residents of California.

  • In 2003, the national average for this indicator was 19.9 patents per 1,000 individuals in an S&E occupation.

  • The District of Columbia and Idaho were outliers, at 0.9 and 83.5, respectively; the latter reflects the presence of a high-patenting Department of Energy National Laboratory in this sparsely populated state.

  • Values for the remaining states varied widely, ranging from 4.1 to 40.7 patents per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations in 2003.

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This indicator shows state patent activity normalized to the size of its science and engineering workforce, specifically employees in S&E occupations. People in S&E occupations include mathematical, computer, life, physical, and social scientists; engineers; and postsecondary teachers in any of these fields. Managers, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel are excluded.

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office classifies patents based on the residence of the first-named inventor. Only U.S.-origin patents are included.

The location of S&E occupations primarily reflects where the individuals work and is based on estimates from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, a cooperative program between the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and state employment security agencies. Because of the different methods of assigning geographic location, this indicator is of limited applicability for sparsely populated states or for locations where a large percentage of the population lives in one state or region and works in another.

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National Science Board.