Notes

[5] Data in the overview are more current than those available in chapter 4.

[6] Distinctions between basic and applied research often involve a greater element of subjective assessment than other R&D indicators, and about 40% of the OECD countries do not report these data at the national level. Nonetheless, where these data exist, they help differentiate national innovation systems in terms of how their R&D resources contribute to advancing scientific knowledge and developing new technologies.