▲ = increase; ● = no change; ▼ = decrease (based on *t*-tests using unrounded numbers); NA = not available
^{a} Insufficient sample size in 1990 for Asian/Pacific Islanders precluded calculation of reliable estimates.
^{b} Insufficient sample size in 1990 for American Indians/Alaska Natives precluded calculation of reliable estimates.
^{c} Percentage of students whose scores fell below a particular score, e.g., 75% of students had scores <75th percentile.
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2005, NCES 2006-453 (2006); National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1990, 1996, 2003, and 2005 mathematics assessments; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations. See appendix table 1-5. Science and Engineering Indicators 2008 |