EU-25: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the UK.

High-skilled diaspora: Increasingly used to describe networks of contact and information flow that form among the internationally mobile portion of a country’s nationals. These networks can provide advantages for a country that help to mitigate any loss of human capital through migration.

Involuntary employment outside of field: Those either employed outside their field because a job in that field was not available or employed part time in their field because full-time work was not available.

Stay rate: The proportion of students on temporary visas who have stayed in the United States 1–5 years after doctoral degree conferral.

Tertiary educated: Roughly equivalent in U.S. terms to individuals who have earned at least technical school or associate’s degrees and including all degrees up to doctorate.

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