Notes

[16] Bureau of Economic Analysis R&D employment data are counts of full-time and part-time employees that devote the majority of their time to R&D activities.

[17] Although Canadians with university degrees can use the easier-to-obtain TN visa to work in the United States, many prefer to seek H-1Bs, perhaps in part because TN visa holders are not permitted to apply for permanent resident ("green card") status. There is no preferential path to a permanent work visa for H-1B holders; they are not forbidden to seek a green card.