[26] For other S&T indicators on Asian countries relative to the United States and the EU, see NSF/SRS (2007a).

[27] For discussions of R&D diversity measurement, see Archibugi and Pianta (1992). Also see Archibugi and Pianta (1996).

[28] Since the mid-1980s, EC funding of R&D has become increasingly concentrated in its multinational Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (RTD), which were intended to strengthen the scientific and technological bases of community industry and to encourage it to become internationally competitive. EC funds distributed to member countries' firms and universities have grown considerably. The EC budget for RTD activities has grown steadily from 3.7 billion European Currency Units (ECU) in the first Framework Programme (1984–87) to 17.5 billion ECU for the Sixth Framework Programme (2003–06). The institutional recipients of these funds tend to report the source as "foreign" or "funds from abroad." Eurostat (2001).