[29] For these data, the United States includes the 50 states; Washington, DC; Puerto Rico; and all U.S. territories and possessions.

[30] For 1999 and 2004 data on U.S. MNCs R&D employment, see BEA (2007b); for 1994 and 1999 comparisons, see NSF (2004a).

[31] BEA defines a parent company of a U.S. MNC as an entity (individual, branch, partnership, or corporation), resident in the United States, that owns or controls at least 10% of the voting securities, or equivalent, of a foreign business enterprise. For selected NSF data on overseas R&D funded by companies with R&D activities in the 50 U.S. states and Washington, DC, see appendix tables 4-48 and 4-49.