Notes

[34] These articles are identified by at least one author having a private, for-profit institutional address.

[35] In this section, article counts were reported on a fractional-count basis. In the following section's discussion of collaboration trends, articles are reported on a whole-count basis. See the sidebar "Bibliometric Data and Terminology" in chapter 5 for a description of these methods of counting articles and how they are generally used.

[36] In contrast to the decline in emphasis on basic research in industry publications, about one-third of U.S. publications overall were published in basic research journals from 1988 to 2005.

[37] All addresses for a company and its subsidiaries are unified into a single code for the parent company.

[38] Other U.S. sectors in which researchers produced articles are academia, the federal government, state and local governments, federally funded R&D centers, and the private nonprofit sector.

[39] The base for the percentages discussed in this section is the number of industry articles with one or more industry authors minus the number of single company articles.