Elementary and Secondary Education

Elementary and Secondary Public School Current Expenditures as Share of Gross Domestic Product: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    (5.11%–3.85%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (3.79%–3.47%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (3.42%–3.05%)
  • 4th quartile
    (3.04%–1.24%)

Quartiles

Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product: 2005
 
1st Quartile
(5.11%–3.85%)
2nd Quartile
(3.79%–3.47%)
3rd Quartile
(3.42%–3.05%)
4th Quartile
(3.04%–1.24%)
 
Arkansas Alaska Alabama Arizona
Indiana Connecticut California Colorado
Maine Georgia Illinois Delaware
Michigan Idaho Iowa District of Columbia
Mississippi Kansas Louisiana Florida
Montana Kentucky Minnesota Hawaii
New Jersey Maryland Missouri Nevada
New York Massachusetts North Dakota North Carolina
Ohio Nebraska Oklahoma South Dakota
Pennsylvania New Hampshire Oregon Tennessee
Rhode Island New Mexico Texas Utah
Vermont South Carolina Virginia Washington
West Virginia   Wyoming  
Wisconsin      
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • The 2005 national average for spending on elementary and secondary education was 3.43% of the GDP, a slight increase from 3.37% in 1995.
  • Among individual states, the value for this indicator ranged from 2.29% to 5.11% of the state's GDP in 2005, indicating that some states were directing a much higher percentage of their resources toward elementary and secondary education. The District of Columbia was an outlier at 1.24%.
  • States spending the highest percentage of their GDP on elementary and secondary education tended to have relatively small student populations (100,000–300,000 students), indicating that some level of state spending may be required regardless of the size of the student population or the GDP.
  • Spending for elementary and secondary current expenditures as a share of the state's GDP decreased in 24 states and the District of Columbia during the 1995–2005 period as spending for primary and secondary education failed to keep pace with growth in the local economy.

Description

This indicator measures the relative amount of resources that local, state, and federal governments direct toward public education in prekindergarten through grade 12. It is calculated by dividing the current expenditures of elementary and secondary public schools by the gross domestic product (GDP). Current expenditures include instruction and instruction-related costs, student support services, administration, and operations and exclude funds for school construction and other capital outlays, debt services, and programs outside of public elementary and secondary education. State and local support represent the largest sources of revenue for elementary and secondary education.

Financial data on public elementary and secondary education are reported by the National Center for Educational Statistics, Department of Education. These data are part of the National Public Education Financial Survey and are included in the Common Core of Data, a comprehensive annual national statistical database covering approximately 94,000 public elementary and secondary schools and 14,000 school districts. Current expenditures are expressed in actual dollars. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2005 represent costs for the 2004–05 academic year. The District of Columbia and Hawaii each have only one school district; therefore, data for these two jurisdictions are not comparable to other states.

Data Table

Table 8-10
Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Public school expenditures
($thousands)
  State GDP ($millions)   School expenditures/
GDP (%)
State 1995 2000 2005   1995 2000 2005   1995 2000 2005
 
United States 243,877,582 323,888,508 424,562,096   7,232,723 9,749,104 12,372,847   3.37 3.32 3.43
Alabama 3,026,287 4,176,082 5,164,406   94,021 114,576 151,342   3.22 3.64 3.41
Alaska 1,020,675 1,183,499 1,442,269   24,805 27,034 39,394   4.11 4.38 3.66
Arizona 3,144,540 4,288,739 6,451,870   104,036 158,533 212,312   3.02 2.71 3.04
Arkansas 1,873,595 2,380,331 3,546,999   53,303 66,801 87,004   3.51 3.56 4.08
California 25,949,033 38,129,479 50,918,654   908,963 1,287,145 1,616,351   2.85 2.96 3.15
Colorado 3,232,976 4,401,010 5,994,440   108,043 171,862 214,337   2.99 2.56 2.80
Connecticut 4,247,328 5,402,836 7,080,396   120,800 160,436 193,496   3.52 3.37 3.66
Delaware 694,473 937,630 1,299,349   27,507 41,472 56,731   2.52 2.26 2.29
District of Columbia 666,938 780,192 1,023,952   47,123 58,699 82,628   1.42 1.33 1.24
Florida 11,019,735 13,885,988 19,042,877   340,501 471,316 666,639   3.24 2.95 2.86
Georgia 6,136,689 9,158,624 12,528,856   199,138 290,887 358,365   3.08 3.15 3.50
Hawaii 1,028,729 1,213,695 1,648,086   36,572 40,202 54,773   2.81 3.02 3.01
Idaho 951,350 1,302,817 1,618,215   27,099 34,989 45,891   3.51 3.72 3.53
Illinois 10,640,279 14,462,773 18,658,428   359,723 464,194 555,599   2.96 3.12 3.36
Indiana 5,243,761 7,110,930 9,108,931   147,984 194,419 236,357   3.54 3.66 3.85
Iowa 2,622,510 3,264,336 3,808,200   71,905 90,186 117,635   3.65 3.62 3.24
Kansas 2,406,580 2,971,814 3,718,153   63,699 82,812 105,228   3.78 3.59 3.53
Kentucky 2,988,892 3,837,794 4,812,591   90,459 111,900 138,616   3.30 3.43 3.47
Louisiana 3,475,926 4,391,189 5,554,766   109,153 131,520 180,336   3.18 3.34 3.08
Maine 1,281,706 1,604,438 2,056,266   27,648 35,542 44,906   4.64 4.51 4.58
Maryland 5,083,380 6,545,135 8,682,586   137,391 180,367 244,447   3.70 3.63 3.55
Massachusetts 6,062,303 8,564,039 11,357,857   195,277 274,949 320,050   3.10 3.11 3.55
Michigan 10,440,206 13,994,294 16,353,921   251,017 337,235 372,148   4.16 4.15 4.39
Minnesota 4,622,930 6,140,442 7,310,284   131,357 185,093 231,437   3.52 3.32 3.16
Mississippi 1,921,480 2,510,376 3,243,888   53,816 64,266 79,786   3.57 3.91 4.07
Missouri 4,275,217 5,655,531 7,115,207   137,528 176,708 215,073   3.11 3.20 3.31
Montana 844,257 994,770 1,193,182   17,393 21,366 29,915   4.85 4.66 3.99
Nebraska 1,594,928 1,926,500 2,512,914   44,505 55,478 72,242   3.58 3.47 3.48
Nevada 1,186,132 1,875,467 2,722,264   48,974 73,719 110,158   2.42 2.54 2.47
New Hampshire 1,053,966 1,418,503 2,021,144   32,149 43,518 54,119   3.28 3.26 3.73
New Jersey 10,776,982 13,327,645 19,669,576   266,724 344,824 427,654   4.04 3.87 4.60
New Mexico 1,441,078 1,890,274 2,554,638   41,459 50,725 69,692   3.48 3.73 3.67
New York 22,989,629 28,433,240 38,866,853   594,444 777,157 961,385   3.87 3.66 4.04
North Carolina 5,440,426 7,713,293 9,567,000   191,579 273,698 350,700   2.84 2.82 2.73
North Dakota 534,632 638,946 786,870   14,515 17,752 24,935   3.68 3.60 3.16
Ohio 10,030,956 12,974,575 17,167,866   293,260 372,006 442,243   3.42 3.49 3.88
Oklahoma 2,763,721 3,382,581 4,161,024   69,580 89,757 121,558   3.97 3.77 3.42
Oregon 2,948,539 3,896,287 4,458,028   80,099 112,438 141,831   3.68 3.47 3.14
Pennsylvania 11,587,027 14,120,112 18,711,100   314,504 389,619 486,139   3.68 3.62 3.85
Rhode Island 1,050,969 1,393,143 1,825,900   25,666 33,609 43,623   4.09 4.15 4.19
South Carolina 2,920,230 4,087,355 5,312,739   86,053 112,514 140,088   3.39 3.63 3.79
South Dakota 612,825 737,998 916,563   17,807 23,099 30,541   3.44 3.19 3.00
Tennessee 3,540,682 4,931,734 6,446,691   135,655 174,851 224,995   2.61 2.82 2.87
Texas 17,572,269 25,098,703 31,919,107   507,441 727,233 989,333   3.46 3.45 3.23
Utah 1,618,047 2,102,655 2,627,022   46,303 67,568 88,364   3.49 3.11 2.97
Vermont 665,559 870,198 1,177,478   13,892 17,782 23,056   4.79 4.89 5.11
Virginia 5,750,318 7,757,598 10,705,162   185,490 260,743 350,692   3.10 2.98 3.05
Washington 5,138,928 6,399,885 7,870,979   151,338 221,961 271,381   3.40 2.88 2.90
West Virginia 1,758,557 2,086,937 2,527,767   36,362 41,476 53,091   4.84 5.03 4.76
Wisconsin 5,422,264 6,852,178 8,435,359   134,096 175,737 216,985   4.04 3.90 3.89
Wyoming 577,144 683,918 863,423   14,567 17,331 27,246   3.96 3.95 3.17
 
Puerto Rico 1,501,485 2,086,414 2,865,945   42,647 61,702 82,650   3.52 3.38 3.47
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: Public school expenditures for Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington for 2005 affected by redistribution of reported values to correct for missing data items. GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years); and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (5.11%–3.85%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (3.79%–3.47%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (3.42%–3.05%)
  • 4th quartile
    (3.04%–1.24%)

Quartiles

Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product: 2005
 
1st Quartile
(5.11%–3.85%)
2nd Quartile
(3.79%–3.47%)
3rd Quartile
(3.42%–3.05%)
4th Quartile
(3.04%–1.24%)
 
Arkansas Alaska Alabama Arizona
Indiana Connecticut California Colorado
Maine Georgia Illinois Delaware
Michigan Idaho Iowa District of Columbia
Mississippi Kansas Louisiana Florida
Montana Kentucky Minnesota Hawaii
New Jersey Maryland Missouri Nevada
New York Massachusetts North Dakota North Carolina
Ohio Nebraska Oklahoma South Dakota
Pennsylvania New Hampshire Oregon Tennessee
Rhode Island New Mexico Texas Utah
Vermont South Carolina Virginia Washington
West Virginia   Wyoming  
Wisconsin      
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • The 2005 national average for spending on elementary and secondary education was 3.43% of the GDP, a slight increase from 3.37% in 1995.
  • Among individual states, the value for this indicator ranged from 2.29% to 5.11% of the state's GDP in 2005, indicating that some states were directing a much higher percentage of their resources toward elementary and secondary education. The District of Columbia was an outlier at 1.24%.
  • States spending the highest percentage of their GDP on elementary and secondary education tended to have relatively small student populations (100,000–300,000 students), indicating that some level of state spending may be required regardless of the size of the student population or the GDP.
  • Spending for elementary and secondary current expenditures as a share of the state's GDP decreased in 24 states and the District of Columbia during the 1995–2005 period as spending for primary and secondary education failed to keep pace with growth in the local economy.

Description

This indicator measures the relative amount of resources that local, state, and federal governments direct toward public education in prekindergarten through grade 12. It is calculated by dividing the current expenditures of elementary and secondary public schools by the gross domestic product (GDP). Current expenditures include instruction and instruction-related costs, student support services, administration, and operations and exclude funds for school construction and other capital outlays, debt services, and programs outside of public elementary and secondary education. State and local support represent the largest sources of revenue for elementary and secondary education.

Financial data on public elementary and secondary education are reported by the National Center for Educational Statistics, Department of Education. These data are part of the National Public Education Financial Survey and are included in the Common Core of Data, a comprehensive annual national statistical database covering approximately 94,000 public elementary and secondary schools and 14,000 school districts. Current expenditures are expressed in actual dollars. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2005 represent costs for the 2004–05 academic year. The District of Columbia and Hawaii each have only one school district; therefore, data for these two jurisdictions are not comparable to other states.

Data Table

Table 8-10
Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Public school expenditures
($thousands)
  State GDP ($millions)   School expenditures/
GDP (%)
State 1995 2000 2005   1995 2000 2005   1995 2000 2005
 
United States 243,877,582 323,888,508 424,562,096   7,232,723 9,749,104 12,372,847   3.37 3.32 3.43
Alabama 3,026,287 4,176,082 5,164,406   94,021 114,576 151,342   3.22 3.64 3.41
Alaska 1,020,675 1,183,499 1,442,269   24,805 27,034 39,394   4.11 4.38 3.66
Arizona 3,144,540 4,288,739 6,451,870   104,036 158,533 212,312   3.02 2.71 3.04
Arkansas 1,873,595 2,380,331 3,546,999   53,303 66,801 87,004   3.51 3.56 4.08
California 25,949,033 38,129,479 50,918,654   908,963 1,287,145 1,616,351   2.85 2.96 3.15
Colorado 3,232,976 4,401,010 5,994,440   108,043 171,862 214,337   2.99 2.56 2.80
Connecticut 4,247,328 5,402,836 7,080,396   120,800 160,436 193,496   3.52 3.37 3.66
Delaware 694,473 937,630 1,299,349   27,507 41,472 56,731   2.52 2.26 2.29
District of Columbia 666,938 780,192 1,023,952   47,123 58,699 82,628   1.42 1.33 1.24
Florida 11,019,735 13,885,988 19,042,877   340,501 471,316 666,639   3.24 2.95 2.86
Georgia 6,136,689 9,158,624 12,528,856   199,138 290,887 358,365   3.08 3.15 3.50
Hawaii 1,028,729 1,213,695 1,648,086   36,572 40,202 54,773   2.81 3.02 3.01
Idaho 951,350 1,302,817 1,618,215   27,099 34,989 45,891   3.51 3.72 3.53
Illinois 10,640,279 14,462,773 18,658,428   359,723 464,194 555,599   2.96 3.12 3.36
Indiana 5,243,761 7,110,930 9,108,931   147,984 194,419 236,357   3.54 3.66 3.85
Iowa 2,622,510 3,264,336 3,808,200   71,905 90,186 117,635   3.65 3.62 3.24
Kansas 2,406,580 2,971,814 3,718,153   63,699 82,812 105,228   3.78 3.59 3.53
Kentucky 2,988,892 3,837,794 4,812,591   90,459 111,900 138,616   3.30 3.43 3.47
Louisiana 3,475,926 4,391,189 5,554,766   109,153 131,520 180,336   3.18 3.34 3.08
Maine 1,281,706 1,604,438 2,056,266   27,648 35,542 44,906   4.64 4.51 4.58
Maryland 5,083,380 6,545,135 8,682,586   137,391 180,367 244,447   3.70 3.63 3.55
Massachusetts 6,062,303 8,564,039 11,357,857   195,277 274,949 320,050   3.10 3.11 3.55
Michigan 10,440,206 13,994,294 16,353,921   251,017 337,235 372,148   4.16 4.15 4.39
Minnesota 4,622,930 6,140,442 7,310,284   131,357 185,093 231,437   3.52 3.32 3.16
Mississippi 1,921,480 2,510,376 3,243,888   53,816 64,266 79,786   3.57 3.91 4.07
Missouri 4,275,217 5,655,531 7,115,207   137,528 176,708 215,073   3.11 3.20 3.31
Montana 844,257 994,770 1,193,182   17,393 21,366 29,915   4.85 4.66 3.99
Nebraska 1,594,928 1,926,500 2,512,914   44,505 55,478 72,242   3.58 3.47 3.48
Nevada 1,186,132 1,875,467 2,722,264   48,974 73,719 110,158   2.42 2.54 2.47
New Hampshire 1,053,966 1,418,503 2,021,144   32,149 43,518 54,119   3.28 3.26 3.73
New Jersey 10,776,982 13,327,645 19,669,576   266,724 344,824 427,654   4.04 3.87 4.60
New Mexico 1,441,078 1,890,274 2,554,638   41,459 50,725 69,692   3.48 3.73 3.67
New York 22,989,629 28,433,240 38,866,853   594,444 777,157 961,385   3.87 3.66 4.04
North Carolina 5,440,426 7,713,293 9,567,000   191,579 273,698 350,700   2.84 2.82 2.73
North Dakota 534,632 638,946 786,870   14,515 17,752 24,935   3.68 3.60 3.16
Ohio 10,030,956 12,974,575 17,167,866   293,260 372,006 442,243   3.42 3.49 3.88
Oklahoma 2,763,721 3,382,581 4,161,024   69,580 89,757 121,558   3.97 3.77 3.42
Oregon 2,948,539 3,896,287 4,458,028   80,099 112,438 141,831   3.68 3.47 3.14
Pennsylvania 11,587,027 14,120,112 18,711,100   314,504 389,619 486,139   3.68 3.62 3.85
Rhode Island 1,050,969 1,393,143 1,825,900   25,666 33,609 43,623   4.09 4.15 4.19
South Carolina 2,920,230 4,087,355 5,312,739   86,053 112,514 140,088   3.39 3.63 3.79
South Dakota 612,825 737,998 916,563   17,807 23,099 30,541   3.44 3.19 3.00
Tennessee 3,540,682 4,931,734 6,446,691   135,655 174,851 224,995   2.61 2.82 2.87
Texas 17,572,269 25,098,703 31,919,107   507,441 727,233 989,333   3.46 3.45 3.23
Utah 1,618,047 2,102,655 2,627,022   46,303 67,568 88,364   3.49 3.11 2.97
Vermont 665,559 870,198 1,177,478   13,892 17,782 23,056   4.79 4.89 5.11
Virginia 5,750,318 7,757,598 10,705,162   185,490 260,743 350,692   3.10 2.98 3.05
Washington 5,138,928 6,399,885 7,870,979   151,338 221,961 271,381   3.40 2.88 2.90
West Virginia 1,758,557 2,086,937 2,527,767   36,362 41,476 53,091   4.84 5.03 4.76
Wisconsin 5,422,264 6,852,178 8,435,359   134,096 175,737 216,985   4.04 3.90 3.89
Wyoming 577,144 683,918 863,423   14,567 17,331 27,246   3.96 3.95 3.17
 
Puerto Rico 1,501,485 2,086,414 2,865,945   42,647 61,702 82,650   3.52 3.38 3.47
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: Public school expenditures for Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington for 2005 affected by redistribution of reported values to correct for missing data items. GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years); and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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