Elementary and Secondary Education

Current Expenditures per Pupil for Elementary and Secondary Public Schools: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    ($14,117–$10,031)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($9,771–$8,071)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($8,065–$7,464)
  • 4th quartile
    ($7,246–$5,216)

Quartiles

Current expenditures per pupil for elementary and secondary public schools: 2005
 
1st Quartile
($14,117–$10,031)
2nd Quartile
($9,771–$8,071)
3rd Quartile
($8,065–$7,464)
4th Quartile
($7,246–$5,216)
 
Alaska Hawaii Arkansas Alabama
Connecticut Illinois California Arizona
Delaware Indiana Colorado Florida
District of Columbia Michigan Georgia Idaho
Maine Minnesota Iowa Kentucky
Maryland Montana Kansas Mississippi
Massachusetts Nebraska Louisiana Nevada
New Jersey New Hampshire Missouri North Carolina
New York Ohio New Mexico Oklahoma
Pennsylvania Oregon North Dakota Tennessee
Rhode Island Virginia South Carolina Texas
Vermont West Virginia South Dakota Utah
Wyoming Wisconsin Washington  
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary (various years); and National Public Education Financial Survey (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • Per-pupil spending on day-to-day operations grew nationwide from $5,529 in 1995 to $8,701 in 2005, an increase of 57% in unadjusted dollars.
  • In 2005, all states showed substantial increases in per-pupil spending relative to 1995, and only 1 state failed to exceed the 1995 national average of $5,529 compared with 28 states in 1995.
  • Per-pupil spending in individual states varied widely, ranging from a high of $14,117 to a low of $5,216 in 2005.
  • There is no direct correlation between spending and academic performance. In fact, several states that ranked in the lower two quartiles of this indicator ranked in the upper quartiles of the National Assessment of Educational Progress indicators.

Description

This indicator measures the investment by local, state, and federal governments in elementary and secondary education, adjusted for the size of the student body. It is calculated by dividing the current expenditures over the entire academic year for prekindergarten through grade 12 by the number of students in those grades in public schools. Current expenditures represent amounts expended for the day-to-day operations of schools and school districts. They include expenditures for instruction and instruction-related costs, student support services, administration, and operations and exclude funds for school construction and other capital outlays, debt services, and programs outside of public elementary and secondary education. During the 2004–05 school year, 65.9% of current expenses were used for instructional costs, 5.2% for student support services, 11.0% for administrative costs, and 17.8% for operational costs.

The number of pupils enrolled in prekindergarten through grade 12 is determined during the fall of the academic year. All figures represent actual spending and have not been adjusted for inflation. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2005 represent costs for the 2004–05 academic year.

Data Table

Table 8-11
Current expenditures per pupil for elementary and secondary public schools, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Public school expenditures
($thousands)
  Student enrollment   Per-pupil
expenditures ($)
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 243,877,582 323,888,508 424,562,096   44,111,482 46,857,149 48,794,911   5,529 6,912 8,701
Alabama 3,026,287 4,176,082 5,164,406   736,531 740,732 730,140   4,109 5,638 7,073
Alaska 1,020,675 1,183,499 1,442,269   127,057 134,391 132,970   8,033 8,806 10,847
Arizona 3,144,540 4,288,739 6,451,870   737,424 852,612 1,043,298   4,264 5,030 6,184
Arkansas 1,873,595 2,380,331 3,546,999   447,565 451,034 463,115   4,186 5,277 7,659
California 25,949,033 38,129,479 50,918,654   5,407,475 6,038,590 6,441,557   4,799 6,314 7,905
Colorado 3,232,976 4,401,010 5,994,440   640,521 708,109 765,976   5,047 6,215 7,826
Connecticut 4,247,328 5,402,836 7,080,396   506,824 553,993 577,390   8,380 9,753 12,263
Delaware 694,473 937,630 1,299,349   106,813 112,836 119,091   6,502 8,310 10,911
District of Columbia 666,938 780,192 1,023,952   80,450 77,194 76,714   8,290 10,107 13,348
Florida 11,019,735 13,885,988 19,042,877   2,111,188 2,381,396 2,639,336   5,220 5,831 7,215
Georgia 6,136,689 9,158,624 12,528,856   1,270,948 1,422,762 1,553,437   4,828 6,437 8,065
Hawaii 1,028,729 1,213,695 1,648,086   183,795 185,860 183,185   5,597 6,530 8,997
Idaho 951,350 1,302,817 1,618,215   240,448 245,136 256,084   3,957 5,315 6,319
Illinois 10,640,279 14,462,773 18,658,428   1,916,172 2,027,600 2,097,503   5,553 7,133 8,896
Indiana 5,243,761 7,110,930 9,108,931   969,022 988,702 1,021,348   5,411 7,192 8,919
Iowa 2,622,510 3,264,336 3,808,200   500,440 497,301 478,319   5,240 6,564 7,962
Kansas 2,406,580 2,971,814 3,718,153   460,838 472,188 469,136   5,222 6,294 7,926
Kentucky 2,988,892 3,837,794 4,812,591   657,642 648,180 674,796   4,545 5,921 7,132
Louisiana 3,475,926 4,391,189 5,554,766   797,933 756,579 724,281   4,356 5,804 7,669
Maine 1,281,706 1,604,438 2,056,266   212,601 209,253 198,820   6,029 7,667 10,342
Maryland 5,083,380 6,545,135 8,682,586   790,938 846,582 865,561   6,427 7,731 10,031
Massachusetts 6,062,303 8,564,039 11,357,857   893,727 971,425 975,574   6,783 8,816 11,642
Michigan 10,440,206 13,994,294 16,353,921   1,614,784 1,725,639 1,750,919   6,465 8,110 9,340
Minnesota 4,622,930 6,140,442 7,310,284   821,693 854,034 838,503   5,626 7,190 8,718
Mississippi 1,921,480 2,510,376 3,243,888   505,962 500,716 495,376   3,798 5,014 6,548
Missouri 4,275,217 5,655,531 7,115,207   878,541 914,110 905,449   4,866 6,187 7,858
Montana 844,257 994,770 1,193,182   164,341 157,556 146,705   5,137 6,314 8,133
Nebraska 1,594,928 1,926,500 2,512,914   287,100 288,261 285,761   5,555 6,683 8,794
Nevada 1,186,132 1,875,467 2,722,264   250,747 325,610 400,083   4,730 5,760 6,804
New Hampshire 1,053,966 1,418,503 2,021,144   189,319 206,783 206,852   5,567 6,860 9,771
New Jersey 10,776,982 13,327,645 19,669,576   1,174,206 1,289,256 1,393,347   9,178 10,337 14,117
New Mexico 1,441,078 1,890,274 2,554,638   327,248 324,495 326,102   4,404 5,825 7,834
New York 22,989,629 28,433,240 38,866,853   2,766,208 2,887,776 2,836,337   8,311 9,846 13,703
North Carolina 5,440,426 7,713,293 9,567,000   1,156,767 1,275,925 1,385,754   4,703 6,045 6,904
North Dakota 534,632 638,946 786,870   119,288 112,751 100,513   4,482 5,667 7,829
Ohio 10,030,956 12,974,575 17,167,866   1,814,290 1,836,554 1,840,032   5,529 7,065 9,330
Oklahoma 2,763,721 3,382,581 4,161,024   609,718 627,032 629,476   4,533 5,395 6,610
Oregon 2,948,539 3,896,287 4,458,028   521,945 545,033 552,322   5,649 7,149 8,071
Pennsylvania 11,587,027 14,120,112 18,711,100   1,764,946 1,816,716 1,828,089   6,565 7,772 10,235
Rhode Island 1,050,969 1,393,143 1,825,900   147,487 156,454 156,498   7,126 8,904 11,667
South Carolina 2,920,230 4,087,355 5,312,739   648,725 666,780 703,736   4,501 6,130 7,549
South Dakota 612,825 737,998 916,563   143,482 131,037 122,798   4,271 5,632 7,464
Tennessee 3,540,682 4,931,734 6,446,691   881,425 916,202 941,091   4,017 5,383 6,850
Texas 17,572,269 25,098,703 31,919,107   3,677,171 3,991,783 4,405,215   4,779 6,288 7,246
Utah 1,618,047 2,102,655 2,627,022   474,675 480,255 503,607   3,409 4,378 5,216
Vermont 665,559 870,198 1,177,478   104,533 104,559 98,352   6,367 8,323 11,972
Virginia 5,750,318 7,757,598 10,705,162   1,060,809 1,133,994 1,204,739   5,421 6,841 8,886
Washington 5,138,928 6,399,885 7,870,979   938,314 1,003,714 1,020,005   5,477 6,376 7,717
West Virginia 1,758,557 2,086,937 2,527,767   310,511 291,811 280,129   5,663 7,152 9,024
Wisconsin 5,422,264 6,852,178 8,435,359   860,581 877,753 864,757   6,301 7,806 9,755
Wyoming 577,144 683,918 863,423   100,314 92,105 84,733   5,753 7,425 10,190
                       
Puerto Rico 1,501,485 2,086,414 2,865,945   621,121 613,019 575,648   2,417 3,404 4,979
 

NOTES: Public school expenditures for Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington for 2005 affected by redistribution of reported values to correct for missing data items. Public school expenditures reported in current dollars. 2005 prekindergarten student membership for California was imputed, affecting the total student count and per pupil expenditures calculation.

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education (various years); and National Public Education Financial Survey (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    ($14,117–$10,031)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($9,771–$8,071)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($8,065–$7,464)
  • 4th quartile
    ($7,246–$5,216)

Quartiles

Current expenditures per pupil for elementary and secondary public schools: 2005
 
1st Quartile
($14,117–$10,031)
2nd Quartile
($9,771–$8,071)
3rd Quartile
($8,065–$7,464)
4th Quartile
($7,246–$5,216)
 
Alaska Hawaii Arkansas Alabama
Connecticut Illinois California Arizona
Delaware Indiana Colorado Florida
District of Columbia Michigan Georgia Idaho
Maine Minnesota Iowa Kentucky
Maryland Montana Kansas Mississippi
Massachusetts Nebraska Louisiana Nevada
New Jersey New Hampshire Missouri North Carolina
New York Ohio New Mexico Oklahoma
Pennsylvania Oregon North Dakota Tennessee
Rhode Island Virginia South Carolina Texas
Vermont West Virginia South Dakota Utah
Wyoming Wisconsin Washington  
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary (various years); and National Public Education Financial Survey (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • Per-pupil spending on day-to-day operations grew nationwide from $5,529 in 1995 to $8,701 in 2005, an increase of 57% in unadjusted dollars.
  • In 2005, all states showed substantial increases in per-pupil spending relative to 1995, and only 1 state failed to exceed the 1995 national average of $5,529 compared with 28 states in 1995.
  • Per-pupil spending in individual states varied widely, ranging from a high of $14,117 to a low of $5,216 in 2005.
  • There is no direct correlation between spending and academic performance. In fact, several states that ranked in the lower two quartiles of this indicator ranked in the upper quartiles of the National Assessment of Educational Progress indicators.

Description

This indicator measures the investment by local, state, and federal governments in elementary and secondary education, adjusted for the size of the student body. It is calculated by dividing the current expenditures over the entire academic year for prekindergarten through grade 12 by the number of students in those grades in public schools. Current expenditures represent amounts expended for the day-to-day operations of schools and school districts. They include expenditures for instruction and instruction-related costs, student support services, administration, and operations and exclude funds for school construction and other capital outlays, debt services, and programs outside of public elementary and secondary education. During the 2004–05 school year, 65.9% of current expenses were used for instructional costs, 5.2% for student support services, 11.0% for administrative costs, and 17.8% for operational costs.

The number of pupils enrolled in prekindergarten through grade 12 is determined during the fall of the academic year. All figures represent actual spending and have not been adjusted for inflation. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2005 represent costs for the 2004–05 academic year.

Data Table

Table 8-11
Current expenditures per pupil for elementary and secondary public schools, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Public school expenditures
($thousands)
  Student enrollment   Per-pupil
expenditures ($)
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 243,877,582 323,888,508 424,562,096   44,111,482 46,857,149 48,794,911   5,529 6,912 8,701
Alabama 3,026,287 4,176,082 5,164,406   736,531 740,732 730,140   4,109 5,638 7,073
Alaska 1,020,675 1,183,499 1,442,269   127,057 134,391 132,970   8,033 8,806 10,847
Arizona 3,144,540 4,288,739 6,451,870   737,424 852,612 1,043,298   4,264 5,030 6,184
Arkansas 1,873,595 2,380,331 3,546,999   447,565 451,034 463,115   4,186 5,277 7,659
California 25,949,033 38,129,479 50,918,654   5,407,475 6,038,590 6,441,557   4,799 6,314 7,905
Colorado 3,232,976 4,401,010 5,994,440   640,521 708,109 765,976   5,047 6,215 7,826
Connecticut 4,247,328 5,402,836 7,080,396   506,824 553,993 577,390   8,380 9,753 12,263
Delaware 694,473 937,630 1,299,349   106,813 112,836 119,091   6,502 8,310 10,911
District of Columbia 666,938 780,192 1,023,952   80,450 77,194 76,714   8,290 10,107 13,348
Florida 11,019,735 13,885,988 19,042,877   2,111,188 2,381,396 2,639,336   5,220 5,831 7,215
Georgia 6,136,689 9,158,624 12,528,856   1,270,948 1,422,762 1,553,437   4,828 6,437 8,065
Hawaii 1,028,729 1,213,695 1,648,086   183,795 185,860 183,185   5,597 6,530 8,997
Idaho 951,350 1,302,817 1,618,215   240,448 245,136 256,084   3,957 5,315 6,319
Illinois 10,640,279 14,462,773 18,658,428   1,916,172 2,027,600 2,097,503   5,553 7,133 8,896
Indiana 5,243,761 7,110,930 9,108,931   969,022 988,702 1,021,348   5,411 7,192 8,919
Iowa 2,622,510 3,264,336 3,808,200   500,440 497,301 478,319   5,240 6,564 7,962
Kansas 2,406,580 2,971,814 3,718,153   460,838 472,188 469,136   5,222 6,294 7,926
Kentucky 2,988,892 3,837,794 4,812,591   657,642 648,180 674,796   4,545 5,921 7,132
Louisiana 3,475,926 4,391,189 5,554,766   797,933 756,579 724,281   4,356 5,804 7,669
Maine 1,281,706 1,604,438 2,056,266   212,601 209,253 198,820   6,029 7,667 10,342
Maryland 5,083,380 6,545,135 8,682,586   790,938 846,582 865,561   6,427 7,731 10,031
Massachusetts 6,062,303 8,564,039 11,357,857   893,727 971,425 975,574   6,783 8,816 11,642
Michigan 10,440,206 13,994,294 16,353,921   1,614,784 1,725,639 1,750,919   6,465 8,110 9,340
Minnesota 4,622,930 6,140,442 7,310,284   821,693 854,034 838,503   5,626 7,190 8,718
Mississippi 1,921,480 2,510,376 3,243,888   505,962 500,716 495,376   3,798 5,014 6,548
Missouri 4,275,217 5,655,531 7,115,207   878,541 914,110 905,449   4,866 6,187 7,858
Montana 844,257 994,770 1,193,182   164,341 157,556 146,705   5,137 6,314 8,133
Nebraska 1,594,928 1,926,500 2,512,914   287,100 288,261 285,761   5,555 6,683 8,794
Nevada 1,186,132 1,875,467 2,722,264   250,747 325,610 400,083   4,730 5,760 6,804
New Hampshire 1,053,966 1,418,503 2,021,144   189,319 206,783 206,852   5,567 6,860 9,771
New Jersey 10,776,982 13,327,645 19,669,576   1,174,206 1,289,256 1,393,347   9,178 10,337 14,117
New Mexico 1,441,078 1,890,274 2,554,638   327,248 324,495 326,102   4,404 5,825 7,834
New York 22,989,629 28,433,240 38,866,853   2,766,208 2,887,776 2,836,337   8,311 9,846 13,703
North Carolina 5,440,426 7,713,293 9,567,000   1,156,767 1,275,925 1,385,754   4,703 6,045 6,904
North Dakota 534,632 638,946 786,870   119,288 112,751 100,513   4,482 5,667 7,829
Ohio 10,030,956 12,974,575 17,167,866   1,814,290 1,836,554 1,840,032   5,529 7,065 9,330
Oklahoma 2,763,721 3,382,581 4,161,024   609,718 627,032 629,476   4,533 5,395 6,610
Oregon 2,948,539 3,896,287 4,458,028   521,945 545,033 552,322   5,649 7,149 8,071
Pennsylvania 11,587,027 14,120,112 18,711,100   1,764,946 1,816,716 1,828,089   6,565 7,772 10,235
Rhode Island 1,050,969 1,393,143 1,825,900   147,487 156,454 156,498   7,126 8,904 11,667
South Carolina 2,920,230 4,087,355 5,312,739   648,725 666,780 703,736   4,501 6,130 7,549
South Dakota 612,825 737,998 916,563   143,482 131,037 122,798   4,271 5,632 7,464
Tennessee 3,540,682 4,931,734 6,446,691   881,425 916,202 941,091   4,017 5,383 6,850
Texas 17,572,269 25,098,703 31,919,107   3,677,171 3,991,783 4,405,215   4,779 6,288 7,246
Utah 1,618,047 2,102,655 2,627,022   474,675 480,255 503,607   3,409 4,378 5,216
Vermont 665,559 870,198 1,177,478   104,533 104,559 98,352   6,367 8,323 11,972
Virginia 5,750,318 7,757,598 10,705,162   1,060,809 1,133,994 1,204,739   5,421 6,841 8,886
Washington 5,138,928 6,399,885 7,870,979   938,314 1,003,714 1,020,005   5,477 6,376 7,717
West Virginia 1,758,557 2,086,937 2,527,767   310,511 291,811 280,129   5,663 7,152 9,024
Wisconsin 5,422,264 6,852,178 8,435,359   860,581 877,753 864,757   6,301 7,806 9,755
Wyoming 577,144 683,918 863,423   100,314 92,105 84,733   5,753 7,425 10,190
                       
Puerto Rico 1,501,485 2,086,414 2,865,945   621,121 613,019 575,648   2,417 3,404 4,979
 

NOTES: Public school expenditures for Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington for 2005 affected by redistribution of reported values to correct for missing data items. Public school expenditures reported in current dollars. 2005 prekindergarten student membership for California was imputed, affecting the total student count and per pupil expenditures calculation.

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education (various years); and National Public Education Financial Survey (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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