Higher Education

Average Undergraduate Charge at Public 4-Year Institutions as a Share of Disposable Personal Income: 2006

  • 1st quartile
    (54.9%–41.8%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (41.4%–37.2%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (36.8%–33.7%)
  • 4th quartile
    (33.6%–24.7%)
  • No data

Quartiles

Average undergraduate charge at public 4-year institutions as share of disposable personal income: 2006
 
1st quartile
(54.9%–41.8%)
2nd Quartile
(41.4%–37.2%)
3rd Quartile
(36.8%–33.7%)
4th Quartile
(33.6%–24.7%)
No Data
 
Delaware Arizona Alabama Alaska District of Columbia
Illinois California Arkansas Florida  
Indiana Iowa Colorado Hawaii  
Maine Kentucky Connecticut Idaho  
Michigan Maryland Georgia Kansas  
New Hampshire Massachusetts Nebraska Louisiana  
New Jersey Minnesota New Mexico Nevada  
Ohio Mississippi North Carolina North Dakota  
Oregon Missouri Tennessee Oklahoma  
Pennsylvania Montana Texas South Dakota  
Rhode Island New York Utah Wyoming  
South Carolina Washington Virginia    
Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin    
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, State and Local Personal Income data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • In 2006 throughout the United States, a year of undergraduate education at a state institution would have consumed 38.2% of an average resident's disposable income, an increase from the 33.3% it would have consumed a decade earlier.
  • The cost of a year of undergraduate education at a public institution consumed one-quarter to one-half of the per capita disposable income for residents of most states in 2006.
  • Although a year of undergraduate education at a public institution became less affordable for residents in most states, affordability improved in six states during the past decade.
  • Residents in Ohio, Iowa, South Carolina, and Nebraska experienced the steepest increases in the cost of a year of undergraduate education relative to their purchasing power (in excess of 10% of per capita disposable income) between 1996 and 2006.

Description

This indicator provides a broad measure of the affordability of higher education at a public institution for the average resident. It is calculated by dividing the average undergraduate charge at all public 4-year institutions in the state by the per capita disposable personal income of state residents. The average undergraduate charge includes standard in-state tuition, room, board, and required fees for a student who is a resident of the state. Disposable personal income is the income that is available to state residents for spending or saving. It is calculated as personal income minus personal current taxes paid to federal, state, and local governments. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2006 represent costs for the 2005–06 academic year.

High values indicate that a year of undergraduate education is more costly or less affordable to state residents. However, the data in this indicator do not include any adjustment for financial aid that a student might receive.

Data Table

Table 8-21
Average undergraduate charge at public 4-year institutions as share of disposable personal income, by state: 1996, 2001, and 2006
 
  Average undergraduate
charge ($)
  Per capita disposable
personal income ($)
  Undergraduate charge/
disposable personal income (%)
State 1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006
 
United States 7,014 8,653 12,108   21,089 26,228 31,735   33.3 33.0 38.2
Alabama 5,735 7,349 9,625   17,842 21,998 28,185   32.1 33.4 34.1
Alaska 6,663 8,390 10,620   23,003 28,155 33,595   29.0 29.8 31.6
Arizona 5,996 7,874 11,480   18,306 22,932 27,763   32.8 34.3 41.3
Arkansas 5,055 6,797 9,192   16,920 20,443 25,112   29.9 33.2 36.6
California 8,209 9,590 13,685   22,011 27,492 33,373   37.3 34.9 41.0
Colorado 7,030 8,362 11,569   22,174 29,575 34,332   31.7 28.3 33.7
Connecticut 8,755 10,521 14,658   27,105 34,610 40,973   32.3 30.4 35.8
Delaware 8,512 10,283 14,326   22,071 27,266 33,683   38.6 37.7 42.5
District of Columbia NA NA NA   28,275 37,147 47,515   NA NA NA
Florida 6,251 7,947 10,141   20,962 25,611 31,635   29.8 31.0 32.1
Georgia 5,690 7,463 10,062   20,029 24,670 28,109   28.4 30.3 35.8
Hawaii NA 8,272 9,042   22,086 25,136 31,856   NA 32.9 28.4
Idaho 5,306 6,765 8,982   17,898 21,904 26,754   29.6 30.9 33.6
Illinois 7,841 9,532 13,976   22,924 27,852 33,419   34.2 34.2 41.8
Indiana 7,388 9,239 12,388   19,528 23,925 28,979   37.8 38.6 42.7
Iowa 5,945 7,587 12,329   19,962 23,921 29,808   29.8 31.7 41.4
Kansas 5,688 6,654 9,980   20,036 25,045 30,935   28.4 26.6 32.3
Kentucky 5,454 6,923 10,663   17,443 21,766 26,104   31.3 31.8 40.8
Louisiana 5,503 6,329 8,506   17,690 22,047 28,553   31.1 28.7 29.8
Maine 7,899 9,371 12,568   18,801 23,715 28,777   42.0 39.5 43.7
Maryland 8,731 10,834 14,793   23,396 30,061 37,574   37.3 36.0 39.4
Massachusetts 8,770 9,207 14,651   24,439 31,746 38,794   35.9 29.0 37.8
Michigan 8,189 9,825 13,693   21,040 25,998 30,117   38.9 37.8 45.5
Minnesota 6,734 8,127 12,777   21,986 27,825 33,494   30.6 29.2 38.1
Mississippi 5,416 7,195 9,461   16,004 19,849 24,360   33.8 36.2 38.8
Missouri 6,768 8,203 11,861   19,777 24,178 29,066   34.2 33.9 40.8
Montana 7,803 7,615 10,613   16,983 21,889 27,419   45.9 34.8 38.7
Nebraska 5,503 7,355 11,286   20,879 25,117 30,676   26.4 29.3 36.8
Nevada 7,400 8,247 10,865   22,803 26,776 32,290   32.5 30.8 33.6
New Hampshire 8,730 11,720 15,479   23,434 29,223 34,964   37.3 40.1 44.3
New Jersey 9,118 12,007 17,708   26,299 32,816 39,840   34.7 36.6 44.4
New Mexico 5,299 7,086 9,579   17,034 21,491 26,839   31.1 33.0 35.7
New York 8,971 10,260 13,275   24,212 29,154 35,407   37.1 35.2 37.5
North Carolina 5,119 7,076 9,675   19,548 23,834 28,339   26.2 29.7 34.1
North Dakota 5,641 6,418 9,829   19,084 23,199 29,515   29.6 27.7 33.3
Ohio 8,157 10,451 16,032   20,217 24,665 29,223   40.3 42.4 54.9
Oklahoma 4,296 6,022 9,404   17,523 22,999 28,895   24.5 26.2 32.5
Oregon 7,395 9,394 12,720   20,232 24,506 29,310   36.6 38.3 43.4
Pennsylvania 9,138 11,091 15,464   21,258 26,135 32,222   43.0 42.4 48.0
Rhode Island 9,453 11,095 14,315   21,213 26,404 32,734   44.6 42.0 43.7
South Carolina 6,964 9,096 13,145   17,724 22,065 26,406   39.3 41.2 49.8
South Dakota 5,613 6,975 9,493   19,661 24,328 31,116   28.5 28.7 30.5
Tennessee 5,373 7,658 9,956   19,628 24,157 29,456   27.4 31.7 33.8
Texas 5,471 7,614 10,973   19,802 25,691 31,012   27.6 29.6 35.4
Utah 5,389 6,598 8,745   17,085 21,687 25,792   31.5 30.4 33.9
Vermont 10,657 12,847 16,571   19,418 25,221 30,317   54.9 50.9 54.7
Virginia 8,207 8,751 12,279   21,761 27,547 33,628   37.7 31.8 36.5
Washington 7,129 8,909 12,384   22,202 28,169 33,334   32.1 31.6 37.2
West Virginia 6,119 7,290 9,992   16,540 20,776 25,204   37.0 35.1 39.6
Wisconsin 5,839 7,396 10,560   20,091 25,322 30,439   29.1 29.2 34.7
Wyoming 5,429 7,017 8,946   19,159 26,351 36,176   28.3 26.6 24.7
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   NA NA NA   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

NOTES: National average undergraduate charge for United States from Digest of Education Statistics data tables. Average charges for entire academic year. Tuition and fees weighted by number of full-time-equivalent undergraduates but not adjusted to reflect student residency. Room and board based on full-time students. National value for disposable personal income is value reported by Bureau of Economic Analysis.
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, State and Local Personal Income data.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

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  • 1st quartile
    (54.9%–41.8%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (41.4%–37.2%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (36.8%–33.7%)
  • 4th quartile
    (33.6%–24.7%)
  • No data

Quartiles

Average undergraduate charge at public 4-year institutions as share of disposable personal income: 2006
 
1st quartile
(54.9%–41.8%)
2nd Quartile
(41.4%–37.2%)
3rd Quartile
(36.8%–33.7%)
4th Quartile
(33.6%–24.7%)
No Data
 
Delaware Arizona Alabama Alaska District of Columbia
Illinois California Arkansas Florida  
Indiana Iowa Colorado Hawaii  
Maine Kentucky Connecticut Idaho  
Michigan Maryland Georgia Kansas  
New Hampshire Massachusetts Nebraska Louisiana  
New Jersey Minnesota New Mexico Nevada  
Ohio Mississippi North Carolina North Dakota  
Oregon Missouri Tennessee Oklahoma  
Pennsylvania Montana Texas South Dakota  
Rhode Island New York Utah Wyoming  
South Carolina Washington Virginia    
Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin    
 
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, State and Local Personal Income data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • In 2006 throughout the United States, a year of undergraduate education at a state institution would have consumed 38.2% of an average resident's disposable income, an increase from the 33.3% it would have consumed a decade earlier.
  • The cost of a year of undergraduate education at a public institution consumed one-quarter to one-half of the per capita disposable income for residents of most states in 2006.
  • Although a year of undergraduate education at a public institution became less affordable for residents in most states, affordability improved in six states during the past decade.
  • Residents in Ohio, Iowa, South Carolina, and Nebraska experienced the steepest increases in the cost of a year of undergraduate education relative to their purchasing power (in excess of 10% of per capita disposable income) between 1996 and 2006.

Description

This indicator provides a broad measure of the affordability of higher education at a public institution for the average resident. It is calculated by dividing the average undergraduate charge at all public 4-year institutions in the state by the per capita disposable personal income of state residents. The average undergraduate charge includes standard in-state tuition, room, board, and required fees for a student who is a resident of the state. Disposable personal income is the income that is available to state residents for spending or saving. It is calculated as personal income minus personal current taxes paid to federal, state, and local governments. The year is the latter date of the academic year. For example, data for 2006 represent costs for the 2005–06 academic year.

High values indicate that a year of undergraduate education is more costly or less affordable to state residents. However, the data in this indicator do not include any adjustment for financial aid that a student might receive.

Data Table

Table 8-21
Average undergraduate charge at public 4-year institutions as share of disposable personal income, by state: 1996, 2001, and 2006
 
  Average undergraduate
charge ($)
  Per capita disposable
personal income ($)
  Undergraduate charge/
disposable personal income (%)
State 1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006
 
United States 7,014 8,653 12,108   21,089 26,228 31,735   33.3 33.0 38.2
Alabama 5,735 7,349 9,625   17,842 21,998 28,185   32.1 33.4 34.1
Alaska 6,663 8,390 10,620   23,003 28,155 33,595   29.0 29.8 31.6
Arizona 5,996 7,874 11,480   18,306 22,932 27,763   32.8 34.3 41.3
Arkansas 5,055 6,797 9,192   16,920 20,443 25,112   29.9 33.2 36.6
California 8,209 9,590 13,685   22,011 27,492 33,373   37.3 34.9 41.0
Colorado 7,030 8,362 11,569   22,174 29,575 34,332   31.7 28.3 33.7
Connecticut 8,755 10,521 14,658   27,105 34,610 40,973   32.3 30.4 35.8
Delaware 8,512 10,283 14,326   22,071 27,266 33,683   38.6 37.7 42.5
District of Columbia NA NA NA   28,275 37,147 47,515   NA NA NA
Florida 6,251 7,947 10,141   20,962 25,611 31,635   29.8 31.0 32.1
Georgia 5,690 7,463 10,062   20,029 24,670 28,109   28.4 30.3 35.8
Hawaii NA 8,272 9,042   22,086 25,136 31,856   NA 32.9 28.4
Idaho 5,306 6,765 8,982   17,898 21,904 26,754   29.6 30.9 33.6
Illinois 7,841 9,532 13,976   22,924 27,852 33,419   34.2 34.2 41.8
Indiana 7,388 9,239 12,388   19,528 23,925 28,979   37.8 38.6 42.7
Iowa 5,945 7,587 12,329   19,962 23,921 29,808   29.8 31.7 41.4
Kansas 5,688 6,654 9,980   20,036 25,045 30,935   28.4 26.6 32.3
Kentucky 5,454 6,923 10,663   17,443 21,766 26,104   31.3 31.8 40.8
Louisiana 5,503 6,329 8,506   17,690 22,047 28,553   31.1 28.7 29.8
Maine 7,899 9,371 12,568   18,801 23,715 28,777   42.0 39.5 43.7
Maryland 8,731 10,834 14,793   23,396 30,061 37,574   37.3 36.0 39.4
Massachusetts 8,770 9,207 14,651   24,439 31,746 38,794   35.9 29.0 37.8
Michigan 8,189 9,825 13,693   21,040 25,998 30,117   38.9 37.8 45.5
Minnesota 6,734 8,127 12,777   21,986 27,825 33,494   30.6 29.2 38.1
Mississippi 5,416 7,195 9,461   16,004 19,849 24,360   33.8 36.2 38.8
Missouri 6,768 8,203 11,861   19,777 24,178 29,066   34.2 33.9 40.8
Montana 7,803 7,615 10,613   16,983 21,889 27,419   45.9 34.8 38.7
Nebraska 5,503 7,355 11,286   20,879 25,117 30,676   26.4 29.3 36.8
Nevada 7,400 8,247 10,865   22,803 26,776 32,290   32.5 30.8 33.6
New Hampshire 8,730 11,720 15,479   23,434 29,223 34,964   37.3 40.1 44.3
New Jersey 9,118 12,007 17,708   26,299 32,816 39,840   34.7 36.6 44.4
New Mexico 5,299 7,086 9,579   17,034 21,491 26,839   31.1 33.0 35.7
New York 8,971 10,260 13,275   24,212 29,154 35,407   37.1 35.2 37.5
North Carolina 5,119 7,076 9,675   19,548 23,834 28,339   26.2 29.7 34.1
North Dakota 5,641 6,418 9,829   19,084 23,199 29,515   29.6 27.7 33.3
Ohio 8,157 10,451 16,032   20,217 24,665 29,223   40.3 42.4 54.9
Oklahoma 4,296 6,022 9,404   17,523 22,999 28,895   24.5 26.2 32.5
Oregon 7,395 9,394 12,720   20,232 24,506 29,310   36.6 38.3 43.4
Pennsylvania 9,138 11,091 15,464   21,258 26,135 32,222   43.0 42.4 48.0
Rhode Island 9,453 11,095 14,315   21,213 26,404 32,734   44.6 42.0 43.7
South Carolina 6,964 9,096 13,145   17,724 22,065 26,406   39.3 41.2 49.8
South Dakota 5,613 6,975 9,493   19,661 24,328 31,116   28.5 28.7 30.5
Tennessee 5,373 7,658 9,956   19,628 24,157 29,456   27.4 31.7 33.8
Texas 5,471 7,614 10,973   19,802 25,691 31,012   27.6 29.6 35.4
Utah 5,389 6,598 8,745   17,085 21,687 25,792   31.5 30.4 33.9
Vermont 10,657 12,847 16,571   19,418 25,221 30,317   54.9 50.9 54.7
Virginia 8,207 8,751 12,279   21,761 27,547 33,628   37.7 31.8 36.5
Washington 7,129 8,909 12,384   22,202 28,169 33,334   32.1 31.6 37.2
West Virginia 6,119 7,290 9,992   16,540 20,776 25,204   37.0 35.1 39.6
Wisconsin 5,839 7,396 10,560   20,091 25,322 30,439   29.1 29.2 34.7
Wyoming 5,429 7,017 8,946   19,159 26,351 36,176   28.3 26.6 24.7
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   NA NA NA   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

NOTES: National average undergraduate charge for United States from Digest of Education Statistics data tables. Average charges for entire academic year. Tuition and fees weighted by number of full-time-equivalent undergraduates but not adjusted to reflect student residency. Room and board based on full-time students. National value for disposable personal income is value reported by Bureau of Economic Analysis.
SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, State and Local Personal Income data.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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