Workforce

Employed S&E Doctorate Holders as Share of Workforce: 2006

  • 1st quartile
    (4.49%–0.49%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (0.48%–0.37%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (0.35%–0.29%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.28%–0.20%)

Quartiles

Employed S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce: 2006
 
1st quartile
(4.49%–0.49%)
2nd Quartile
(0.48%–0.37%)
3rd Quartile
(0.35%–0.29%)
4th Quartile
(0.28%–0.20%)
 
California Hawaii Alaska Alabama
Colorado Idaho Arizona Arkansas
Connecticut Illinois Georgia Florida
Delaware Michigan Indiana Kentucky
District of Columbia Minnesota Iowa Mississippi
Maryland Montana Kansas Nevada
Massachusetts New Jersey Louisiana Oklahoma
New Mexico North Carolina Maine South Dakota
New York North Dakota Missouri West Virginia
Rhode Island Ohio Nebraska Wyoming
Vermont Oregon New Hampshire  
Virginia Pennsylvania South Carolina  
Washington Utah Tennessee  
    Texas  
    Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The number of employed S&E doctorate holders in the United States rose from 517,000 in 1997 to 618,000 in 2006, an increase of 20%.
  • For the United States, the value of this indicator rose from 0.39% to 0.43% of the workforce because the number of employed S&E doctorate holders increased more rapidly than the size of the workforce during this period.
  • In 2006, the values for this indicator in individual states ranged from 0.20% to 1.00% of the state's workforce; the District of Columbia was an outlier at 4.49%, reflecting the fact that there are many government offices, colleges and universities, and government contractors in the area that employ scientists and engineers.
  • States in the top quartile tend to be home to major research laboratories, research universities, or research-intensive industries.

Description

This indicator shows a state's ability to attract and retain highly trained scientists and engineers. These individuals often conduct R&D, manage R&D activities, or are otherwise engaged in knowledge-intensive activities. A high value for this indicator in a state suggests employment opportunities for individuals with highly advanced training in S&E.

S&E fields include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. S&E doctorate data derive from NSF's Survey of Doctorate Recipients, which excludes those with doctorates from foreign institutions. The location of the employed doctorate holders primarily reflects the state in which the individuals work. Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics' estimates from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics, which bases location on residence. Because of this difference and the sample-based nature of the data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.

Data Table

Table 8-27
Employed S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce, by state: 1997, 2001, and 2006
 
  Employed S&E doctorate holders   Employed workforce   S&E doctorate holders
in workforce (%)
State 1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2006
 
United States 516,560 572,800 618,370   130,988,267 137,115,199 144,581,912   0.39 0.42 0.43
Alabama 6,610 5,330 5,900   2,035,156 2,034,909 2,120,573   0.32 0.26 0.28
Alaskaa 1,110 1,200 1,110   289,963 301,694 323,531   0.38 0.40 0.34
Arizona 6,280 7,070 8,410   2,196,901 2,453,453 2,854,381   0.29 0.29 0.29
Arkansas 2,320 2,560 2,840   1,177,143 1,194,024 1,292,886   0.20 0.21 0.22
California 70,490 80,870 87,370   14,780,791 16,220,033 17,029,307   0.48 0.50 0.51
Colorado 10,740 11,780 13,150   2,154,294 2,303,494 2,537,037   0.50 0.51 0.52
Connecticut 8,770 9,490 10,330   1,674,937 1,700,046 1,765,075   0.52 0.56 0.59
Delaware 3,710 3,540 3,110   378,117 404,135 424,506   0.98 0.88 0.73
District of Columbia 11,800 14,200 13,330   262,789 286,649 296,957   4.49 4.95 4.49
Florida 13,330 15,740 17,630   7,040,660 7,624,718 8,692,761   0.19 0.21 0.20
Georgia 9,880 11,990 12,940   3,751,699 4,112,868 4,522,025   0.26 0.29 0.29
Hawaii 2,550 2,580 2,850   566,766 589,216 628,277   0.45 0.44 0.45
Idahoa 2,030 2,230 2,840   598,004 644,816 723,621   0.34 0.35 0.39
Illinois 21,260 22,110 24,110   5,988,296 6,113,536 6,315,715   0.36 0.36 0.38
Indiana 7,570 9,580 9,870   3,014,499 3,020,985 3,108,806   0.25 0.32 0.32
Iowa 4,120 4,390 4,890   1,555,837 1,568,638 1,602,849   0.26 0.28 0.31
Kansas 3,770 3,970 4,250   1,329,797 1,347,715 1,400,169   0.28 0.29 0.30
Kentucky 4,110 4,590 4,990   1,809,785 1,852,056 1,922,163   0.23 0.25 0.26
Louisiana 5,360 5,290 5,470   1,890,102 1,922,110 1,910,348   0.28 0.28 0.29
Mainea 2,150 1,990 2,350   624,410 650,699 678,843   0.34 0.31 0.35
Maryland 21,020 22,730 26,220   2,646,200 2,712,268 2,892,620   0.79 0.84 0.91
Massachusetts 23,330 29,100 32,360   3,158,851 3,275,343 3,234,860   0.74 0.89 1.00
Michigan 15,050 17,380 17,900   4,748,691 4,876,338 4,730,291   0.32 0.36 0.38
Minnesota 9,810 11,410 11,850   2,605,673 2,755,808 2,822,297   0.38 0.41 0.42
Mississippi 3,000 3,170 3,310   1,200,845 1,229,884 1,218,664   0.25 0.26 0.27
Missouri 9,490 9,280 9,230   2,780,185 2,867,853 2,885,857   0.34 0.32 0.32
Montanaa 1,690 1,440 1,990   427,504 447,827 478,162   0.40 0.32 0.42
Nebraska 3,010 2,890 2,970   904,492 925,783 945,270   0.33 0.31 0.31
Nevada 1,620 2,030 2,620   895,258 1,042,182 1,240,868   0.18 0.19 0.21
New Hampshirea 2,230 2,470 2,440   635,469 680,706 711,512   0.35 0.36 0.34
New Jersey 20,440 22,740 20,840   4,031,022 4,117,543 4,309,021   0.51 0.55 0.48
New Mexico 7,480 7,750 8,330   768,596 821,003 895,623   0.97 0.94 0.93
New York 40,080 43,980 45,840   8,416,544 8,743,924 9,072,733   0.48 0.50 0.51
North Carolina 13,730 16,760 18,880   3,809,601 3,929,977 4,250,619   0.36 0.43 0.44
North Dakotaa 1,350 1,080 1,380   335,854 336,228 346,359   0.40 0.32 0.40
Ohio 18,700 20,070 20,540   5,448,161 5,566,735 5,609,056   0.34 0.36 0.37
Oklahoma 4,580 4,360 4,420   1,543,105 1,614,627 1,650,877   0.30 0.27 0.27
Oregon 6,210 7,040 8,280   1,652,997 1,711,041 1,796,165   0.38 0.41 0.46
Pennsylvania 23,940 26,140 29,090   5,775,178 5,874,153 6,009,858   0.41 0.45 0.48
Rhode Island 2,450 2,640 3,020   504,147 520,677 547,618   0.49 0.51 0.55
South Carolina 4,780 5,130 5,920   1,819,508 1,842,291 1,988,378   0.26 0.28 0.30
South Dakotaa 1,060 1,000 1,050   383,216 400,352 417,100   0.28 0.25 0.25
Tennessee 8,520 8,980 9,980   2,640,005 2,728,523 2,835,530   0.32 0.33 0.35
Texas 28,570 32,490 35,970   9,395,279 9,991,920 10,921,673   0.30 0.33 0.33
Utah 4,800 4,820 5,540   1,034,429 1,108,547 1,272,801   0.46 0.43 0.44
Vermonta 1,750 1,750 1,700   315,806 330,099 348,026   0.55 0.53 0.49
Virginia 15,250 17,460 19,790   3,323,266 3,537,719 3,878,988   0.46 0.49 0.51
Washington 13,360 14,760 16,920   2,822,223 2,863,705 3,160,350   0.47 0.52 0.54
West Virginiaa 1,980 1,890 2,020   746,442 758,904 767,134   0.27 0.25 0.26
Wisconsin 8,460 8,720 9,500   2,855,830 2,897,937 2,918,155   0.30 0.30 0.33
Wyominga 860 840 730   243,944 259,508 275,617   0.35 0.32 0.26
 
Puerto Rico 660 1,410 1,690   1,132,658 1,133,988 1,260,703   0.06 0.12 0.13
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location, and workforce data based on respondents' residence. Data on 2006 employed S&E doctorate holders are preliminary. Workforce represents employed component of civilian labor force and reported as annual data not seasonally adjusted.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (4.49%–0.49%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (0.48%–0.37%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (0.35%–0.29%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.28%–0.20%)

Quartiles

Employed S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce: 2006
 
1st quartile
(4.49%–0.49%)
2nd Quartile
(0.48%–0.37%)
3rd Quartile
(0.35%–0.29%)
4th Quartile
(0.28%–0.20%)
 
California Hawaii Alaska Alabama
Colorado Idaho Arizona Arkansas
Connecticut Illinois Georgia Florida
Delaware Michigan Indiana Kentucky
District of Columbia Minnesota Iowa Mississippi
Maryland Montana Kansas Nevada
Massachusetts New Jersey Louisiana Oklahoma
New Mexico North Carolina Maine South Dakota
New York North Dakota Missouri West Virginia
Rhode Island Ohio Nebraska Wyoming
Vermont Oregon New Hampshire  
Virginia Pennsylvania South Carolina  
Washington Utah Tennessee  
    Texas  
    Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The number of employed S&E doctorate holders in the United States rose from 517,000 in 1997 to 618,000 in 2006, an increase of 20%.
  • For the United States, the value of this indicator rose from 0.39% to 0.43% of the workforce because the number of employed S&E doctorate holders increased more rapidly than the size of the workforce during this period.
  • In 2006, the values for this indicator in individual states ranged from 0.20% to 1.00% of the state's workforce; the District of Columbia was an outlier at 4.49%, reflecting the fact that there are many government offices, colleges and universities, and government contractors in the area that employ scientists and engineers.
  • States in the top quartile tend to be home to major research laboratories, research universities, or research-intensive industries.

Description

This indicator shows a state's ability to attract and retain highly trained scientists and engineers. These individuals often conduct R&D, manage R&D activities, or are otherwise engaged in knowledge-intensive activities. A high value for this indicator in a state suggests employment opportunities for individuals with highly advanced training in S&E.

S&E fields include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. S&E doctorate data derive from NSF's Survey of Doctorate Recipients, which excludes those with doctorates from foreign institutions. The location of the employed doctorate holders primarily reflects the state in which the individuals work. Civilian workforce data are Bureau of Labor Statistics' estimates from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics, which bases location on residence. Because of this difference and the sample-based nature of the data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.

Data Table

Table 8-27
Employed S&E doctorate holders as share of workforce, by state: 1997, 2001, and 2006
 
  Employed S&E doctorate holders   Employed workforce   S&E doctorate holders
in workforce (%)
State 1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2006
 
United States 516,560 572,800 618,370   130,988,267 137,115,199 144,581,912   0.39 0.42 0.43
Alabama 6,610 5,330 5,900   2,035,156 2,034,909 2,120,573   0.32 0.26 0.28
Alaskaa 1,110 1,200 1,110   289,963 301,694 323,531   0.38 0.40 0.34
Arizona 6,280 7,070 8,410   2,196,901 2,453,453 2,854,381   0.29 0.29 0.29
Arkansas 2,320 2,560 2,840   1,177,143 1,194,024 1,292,886   0.20 0.21 0.22
California 70,490 80,870 87,370   14,780,791 16,220,033 17,029,307   0.48 0.50 0.51
Colorado 10,740 11,780 13,150   2,154,294 2,303,494 2,537,037   0.50 0.51 0.52
Connecticut 8,770 9,490 10,330   1,674,937 1,700,046 1,765,075   0.52 0.56 0.59
Delaware 3,710 3,540 3,110   378,117 404,135 424,506   0.98 0.88 0.73
District of Columbia 11,800 14,200 13,330   262,789 286,649 296,957   4.49 4.95 4.49
Florida 13,330 15,740 17,630   7,040,660 7,624,718 8,692,761   0.19 0.21 0.20
Georgia 9,880 11,990 12,940   3,751,699 4,112,868 4,522,025   0.26 0.29 0.29
Hawaii 2,550 2,580 2,850   566,766 589,216 628,277   0.45 0.44 0.45
Idahoa 2,030 2,230 2,840   598,004 644,816 723,621   0.34 0.35 0.39
Illinois 21,260 22,110 24,110   5,988,296 6,113,536 6,315,715   0.36 0.36 0.38
Indiana 7,570 9,580 9,870   3,014,499 3,020,985 3,108,806   0.25 0.32 0.32
Iowa 4,120 4,390 4,890   1,555,837 1,568,638 1,602,849   0.26 0.28 0.31
Kansas 3,770 3,970 4,250   1,329,797 1,347,715 1,400,169   0.28 0.29 0.30
Kentucky 4,110 4,590 4,990   1,809,785 1,852,056 1,922,163   0.23 0.25 0.26
Louisiana 5,360 5,290 5,470   1,890,102 1,922,110 1,910,348   0.28 0.28 0.29
Mainea 2,150 1,990 2,350   624,410 650,699 678,843   0.34 0.31 0.35
Maryland 21,020 22,730 26,220   2,646,200 2,712,268 2,892,620   0.79 0.84 0.91
Massachusetts 23,330 29,100 32,360   3,158,851 3,275,343 3,234,860   0.74 0.89 1.00
Michigan 15,050 17,380 17,900   4,748,691 4,876,338 4,730,291   0.32 0.36 0.38
Minnesota 9,810 11,410 11,850   2,605,673 2,755,808 2,822,297   0.38 0.41 0.42
Mississippi 3,000 3,170 3,310   1,200,845 1,229,884 1,218,664   0.25 0.26 0.27
Missouri 9,490 9,280 9,230   2,780,185 2,867,853 2,885,857   0.34 0.32 0.32
Montanaa 1,690 1,440 1,990   427,504 447,827 478,162   0.40 0.32 0.42
Nebraska 3,010 2,890 2,970   904,492 925,783 945,270   0.33 0.31 0.31
Nevada 1,620 2,030 2,620   895,258 1,042,182 1,240,868   0.18 0.19 0.21
New Hampshirea 2,230 2,470 2,440   635,469 680,706 711,512   0.35 0.36 0.34
New Jersey 20,440 22,740 20,840   4,031,022 4,117,543 4,309,021   0.51 0.55 0.48
New Mexico 7,480 7,750 8,330   768,596 821,003 895,623   0.97 0.94 0.93
New York 40,080 43,980 45,840   8,416,544 8,743,924 9,072,733   0.48 0.50 0.51
North Carolina 13,730 16,760 18,880   3,809,601 3,929,977 4,250,619   0.36 0.43 0.44
North Dakotaa 1,350 1,080 1,380   335,854 336,228 346,359   0.40 0.32 0.40
Ohio 18,700 20,070 20,540   5,448,161 5,566,735 5,609,056   0.34 0.36 0.37
Oklahoma 4,580 4,360 4,420   1,543,105 1,614,627 1,650,877   0.30 0.27 0.27
Oregon 6,210 7,040 8,280   1,652,997 1,711,041 1,796,165   0.38 0.41 0.46
Pennsylvania 23,940 26,140 29,090   5,775,178 5,874,153 6,009,858   0.41 0.45 0.48
Rhode Island 2,450 2,640 3,020   504,147 520,677 547,618   0.49 0.51 0.55
South Carolina 4,780 5,130 5,920   1,819,508 1,842,291 1,988,378   0.26 0.28 0.30
South Dakotaa 1,060 1,000 1,050   383,216 400,352 417,100   0.28 0.25 0.25
Tennessee 8,520 8,980 9,980   2,640,005 2,728,523 2,835,530   0.32 0.33 0.35
Texas 28,570 32,490 35,970   9,395,279 9,991,920 10,921,673   0.30 0.33 0.33
Utah 4,800 4,820 5,540   1,034,429 1,108,547 1,272,801   0.46 0.43 0.44
Vermonta 1,750 1,750 1,700   315,806 330,099 348,026   0.55 0.53 0.49
Virginia 15,250 17,460 19,790   3,323,266 3,537,719 3,878,988   0.46 0.49 0.51
Washington 13,360 14,760 16,920   2,822,223 2,863,705 3,160,350   0.47 0.52 0.54
West Virginiaa 1,980 1,890 2,020   746,442 758,904 767,134   0.27 0.25 0.26
Wisconsin 8,460 8,720 9,500   2,855,830 2,897,937 2,918,155   0.30 0.30 0.33
Wyominga 860 840 730   243,944 259,508 275,617   0.35 0.32 0.26
 
Puerto Rico 660 1,410 1,690   1,132,658 1,133,988 1,260,703   0.06 0.12 0.13
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location, and workforce data based on respondents' residence. Data on 2006 employed S&E doctorate holders are preliminary. Workforce represents employed component of civilian labor force and reported as annual data not seasonally adjusted.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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