Financial Research and Development Inputs

R&D as Share of Gross Domestic Product: 2004

  • 1st quartile
    (8.01%–2.71%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (2.69%–1.95%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (1.84%–1.05%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.96%–0.41%)

Quartiles

R&D as share of gross domestic product: 2004
 
1st quartile
(8.01%–2.71%)
2nd Quartile
(2.69%–1.95%)
3rd Quartile
(1.84%–1.05%)
4th Quartile
(0.96%–0.41%)
 
California Alabama Arizona Alaska
Colorado Delaware Georgia Arkansas
Connecticut Idaho Iowa Florida
District of Columbia Illinois Missouri Hawaii
Maryland Indiana Montana Kentucky
Massachusetts Kansas Nebraska Louisiana
Michigan Minnesota New York Maine
New Hampshire North Carolina Ohio Mississippi
New Jersey North Dakota South Carolina Nevada
New Mexico Pennsylvania Tennessee Oklahoma
Oregon Utah Texas South Dakota
Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wyoming
Washington Virginia Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The national value of R&D expenditures as a share of GDP has varied from 2.47% in 1998 to 2.44% in 2004.
  • In 2004, state values for this indicator ranged from 0.41% to 8.01%, indicating large differences in the geographic concentration of R&D.
  • New Mexico is an outlier on this indicator because of the presence of large federal R&D activities and a relatively small GDP.
  • Between 1998 and 2004, the value of this indicator increased in 31 states and declined in 18 states and the District of Columbia.
  • States with high rankings on this indicator also tended to rank high on S&E doctorate holders as a share of the workforce.

Description

This indicator shows the extent to which R&D play a role in a state's economy. A high value indicates that the state has a high intensity of R&D activity, which may support future growth in knowledge-based industries. Industries that have a high percentage of R&D activity include pharmaceuticals, chemicals, computer equipment and services, electronic components, aerospace, and motor vehicles. R&D refers to R&D activities performed by federal agencies, industry, universities, and other nonprofit organizations. At the national level in 2004, industry performed roughly 71% of total R&D, followed by colleges and universities at 15%; government facilities, including federally funded R&D centers, at 12%; and nonprofit institutions at 2%. Data for the value of gross domestic product (GDP) and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.

The methodology for assigning R&D activity at the state level was modified in 2001, and data back to 1998 were recalculated using the new methodology. State-level R&D data from years before 1998 are not comparable.

Data Table

Table 8-31
R&D as share of gross domestic product, by state: 1998, 2001, and 2004
 
  R&D performed ($millions)   State GDP ($millions)   R&D performed/GDP (%)
State 1998 2001 2004    1998 2001 2004    1998 2001 2004
 
United States 214,752 255,897 283,439   8,679,660 10,058,169 11,633,573   2.47 2.54 2.44
Alabama 1,926 2,251 2,760   106,656 118,682 141,702   1.81 1.90 1.95
Alaska NA 297 271   23,165 26,609 34,729   NA 1.11 0.78
Arizona 2,318 3,048 3,544   137,581 165,358 194,134   1.68 1.84 1.83
Arkansas 283 451 514   61,861 68,927 81,752   0.46 0.65 0.63
California 43,919 50,959 59,607   1,085,884 1,301,050 1,515,453   4.04 3.92 3.93
Colorado 4,565 4,313 5,497   143,160 178,078 198,407   3.19 2.42 2.77
Connecticut 3,559 5,311 7,881   145,373 165,025 183,873   2.45 3.22 4.29
Delaware 2,556 1,316 1,182   36,831 44,206 52,454   6.94 2.98 2.25
District of Columbia 2,606 2,543 2,383   51,682 63,730 77,782   5.04 3.99 3.06
Florida 4,773 5,642 5,409   417,169 497,423 607,201   1.14 1.13 0.89
Georgia 2,492 3,236 3,655   255,612 299,442 337,622   0.97 1.08 1.08
Hawaii 242 358 490   37,549 41,822 50,781   0.64 0.86 0.96
Idaho 1,127 1,259 1,006   29,800 35,631 42,697   3.78 3.53 2.36
Illinois 8,830 10,472 11,300   423,855 476,461 534,364   2.08 2.20 2.11
Indiana 3,089 4,235 5,130   178,909 195,196 229,618   1.73 2.17 2.23
Iowa 1,054 1,324 1,625   83,665 91,920 111,626   1.26 1.44 1.46
Kansas 1,518 1,597 2,169   76,005 86,430 99,125   2.00 1.85 2.19
Kentucky 645 951 1,006   108,813 115,113 131,839   0.59 0.83 0.76
Louisiana 542 827 972   118,085 133,689 162,646   0.46 0.62 0.60
Maine 159 389 384   31,731 37,129 43,131   0.50 1.05 0.89
Maryland 8,019 11,379 14,341   161,954 192,659 229,158   4.95 5.91 6.26
Massachusetts 13,382 14,665 15,987   236,079 280,509 309,483   5.67 5.23 5.17
Michigan 13,655 15,533 16,722   309,431 334,419 363,380   4.41 4.64 4.60
Minnesota 3,818 5,010 5,992   164,897 190,231 222,628   2.32 2.63 2.69
Mississippi 366 650 651   60,513 65,961 76,534   0.61 0.99 0.85
Missouri 1,868 2,550 3,038   164,267 182,362 204,733   1.14 1.40 1.48
Montana 191 239 295   19,884 22,471 27,790   0.96 1.06 1.06
Nebraska 315 580 740   52,076 57,438 67,976   0.60 1.01 1.09
Nevada 571 444 623   63,635 77,291 99,342   0.90 0.57 0.63
New Hampshire 1,340 1,587 1,665   39,102 44,279 51,656   3.43 3.58 3.22
New Jersey 11,368 11,392 12,460   314,117 362,987 409,156   3.62 3.14 3.05
New Mexico 3,032 3,947 5,114   45,918 51,359 63,861   6.60 7.69 8.01
New York 13,731 14,422 13,113   686,906 808,537 908,308   2.00 1.78 1.44
North Carolina 4,560 5,825 6,491   242,904 285,651 324,622   1.88 2.04 2.00
North Dakota 119 461 558   16,936 18,527 22,715   0.71 2.49 2.46
Ohio 6,970 8,790 7,816   348,723 374,719 424,562   2.00 2.35 1.84
Oklahoma 513 872 814   79,341 94,329 111,400   0.65 0.92 0.73
Oregon 1,910 5,447 3,664   100,951 110,916 135,014   1.89 4.91 2.71
Pennsylvania 8,762 11,156 10,813   361,800 406,713 464,467   2.42 2.74 2.33
Rhode Island 1,677 1,579 1,840   29,537 35,149 42,213   5.68 4.49 4.36
South Carolina 989 1,447 1,599   102,945 117,296 132,348   0.96 1.23 1.21
South Dakota 60 141 149   20,771 23,910 29,519   0.29 0.59 0.50
Tennessee 2,503 2,651 3,180   160,872 180,582 214,400   1.56 1.47 1.48
Texas 10,774 12,722 14,266   629,209 762,247 904,412   1.71 1.67 1.58
Utah 1,495 1,495 1,602   60,168 70,109 81,059   2.48 2.13 1.98
Vermont 175 423 546   15,935 18,828 22,002   1.10 2.24 2.48
Virginia 4,934 5,544 7,345   226,569 276,762 325,467   2.18 2.00 2.26
Washington 8,466 10,372 10,936   195,794 225,765 252,384   4.32 4.59 4.33
West Virginia 421 466 523   39,500 43,365 49,903   1.07 1.07 1.05
Wisconsin 2,501 3,249 3,675   160,681 181,936 208,269   1.56 1.79 1.76
Wyoming 65 82 98   14,859 18,941 23,876   0.44 0.44 0.41
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   54,086 69,208 79,209   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: R&D includes R&D performed by federal agencies, industry, universities, and other nonprofit organizations. R&D and GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (8.01%–2.71%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (2.69%–1.95%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (1.84%–1.05%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.96%–0.41%)

Quartiles

R&D as share of gross domestic product: 2004
 
1st quartile
(8.01%–2.71%)
2nd Quartile
(2.69%–1.95%)
3rd Quartile
(1.84%–1.05%)
4th Quartile
(0.96%–0.41%)
 
California Alabama Arizona Alaska
Colorado Delaware Georgia Arkansas
Connecticut Idaho Iowa Florida
District of Columbia Illinois Missouri Hawaii
Maryland Indiana Montana Kentucky
Massachusetts Kansas Nebraska Louisiana
Michigan Minnesota New York Maine
New Hampshire North Carolina Ohio Mississippi
New Jersey North Dakota South Carolina Nevada
New Mexico Pennsylvania Tennessee Oklahoma
Oregon Utah Texas South Dakota
Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wyoming
Washington Virginia Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The national value of R&D expenditures as a share of GDP has varied from 2.47% in 1998 to 2.44% in 2004.
  • In 2004, state values for this indicator ranged from 0.41% to 8.01%, indicating large differences in the geographic concentration of R&D.
  • New Mexico is an outlier on this indicator because of the presence of large federal R&D activities and a relatively small GDP.
  • Between 1998 and 2004, the value of this indicator increased in 31 states and declined in 18 states and the District of Columbia.
  • States with high rankings on this indicator also tended to rank high on S&E doctorate holders as a share of the workforce.

Description

This indicator shows the extent to which R&D play a role in a state's economy. A high value indicates that the state has a high intensity of R&D activity, which may support future growth in knowledge-based industries. Industries that have a high percentage of R&D activity include pharmaceuticals, chemicals, computer equipment and services, electronic components, aerospace, and motor vehicles. R&D refers to R&D activities performed by federal agencies, industry, universities, and other nonprofit organizations. At the national level in 2004, industry performed roughly 71% of total R&D, followed by colleges and universities at 15%; government facilities, including federally funded R&D centers, at 12%; and nonprofit institutions at 2%. Data for the value of gross domestic product (GDP) and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.

The methodology for assigning R&D activity at the state level was modified in 2001, and data back to 1998 were recalculated using the new methodology. State-level R&D data from years before 1998 are not comparable.

Data Table

Table 8-31
R&D as share of gross domestic product, by state: 1998, 2001, and 2004
 
  R&D performed ($millions)   State GDP ($millions)   R&D performed/GDP (%)
State 1998 2001 2004    1998 2001 2004    1998 2001 2004
 
United States 214,752 255,897 283,439   8,679,660 10,058,169 11,633,573   2.47 2.54 2.44
Alabama 1,926 2,251 2,760   106,656 118,682 141,702   1.81 1.90 1.95
Alaska NA 297 271   23,165 26,609 34,729   NA 1.11 0.78
Arizona 2,318 3,048 3,544   137,581 165,358 194,134   1.68 1.84 1.83
Arkansas 283 451 514   61,861 68,927 81,752   0.46 0.65 0.63
California 43,919 50,959 59,607   1,085,884 1,301,050 1,515,453   4.04 3.92 3.93
Colorado 4,565 4,313 5,497   143,160 178,078 198,407   3.19 2.42 2.77
Connecticut 3,559 5,311 7,881   145,373 165,025 183,873   2.45 3.22 4.29
Delaware 2,556 1,316 1,182   36,831 44,206 52,454   6.94 2.98 2.25
District of Columbia 2,606 2,543 2,383   51,682 63,730 77,782   5.04 3.99 3.06
Florida 4,773 5,642 5,409   417,169 497,423 607,201   1.14 1.13 0.89
Georgia 2,492 3,236 3,655   255,612 299,442 337,622   0.97 1.08 1.08
Hawaii 242 358 490   37,549 41,822 50,781   0.64 0.86 0.96
Idaho 1,127 1,259 1,006   29,800 35,631 42,697   3.78 3.53 2.36
Illinois 8,830 10,472 11,300   423,855 476,461 534,364   2.08 2.20 2.11
Indiana 3,089 4,235 5,130   178,909 195,196 229,618   1.73 2.17 2.23
Iowa 1,054 1,324 1,625   83,665 91,920 111,626   1.26 1.44 1.46
Kansas 1,518 1,597 2,169   76,005 86,430 99,125   2.00 1.85 2.19
Kentucky 645 951 1,006   108,813 115,113 131,839   0.59 0.83 0.76
Louisiana 542 827 972   118,085 133,689 162,646   0.46 0.62 0.60
Maine 159 389 384   31,731 37,129 43,131   0.50 1.05 0.89
Maryland 8,019 11,379 14,341   161,954 192,659 229,158   4.95 5.91 6.26
Massachusetts 13,382 14,665 15,987   236,079 280,509 309,483   5.67 5.23 5.17
Michigan 13,655 15,533 16,722   309,431 334,419 363,380   4.41 4.64 4.60
Minnesota 3,818 5,010 5,992   164,897 190,231 222,628   2.32 2.63 2.69
Mississippi 366 650 651   60,513 65,961 76,534   0.61 0.99 0.85
Missouri 1,868 2,550 3,038   164,267 182,362 204,733   1.14 1.40 1.48
Montana 191 239 295   19,884 22,471 27,790   0.96 1.06 1.06
Nebraska 315 580 740   52,076 57,438 67,976   0.60 1.01 1.09
Nevada 571 444 623   63,635 77,291 99,342   0.90 0.57 0.63
New Hampshire 1,340 1,587 1,665   39,102 44,279 51,656   3.43 3.58 3.22
New Jersey 11,368 11,392 12,460   314,117 362,987 409,156   3.62 3.14 3.05
New Mexico 3,032 3,947 5,114   45,918 51,359 63,861   6.60 7.69 8.01
New York 13,731 14,422 13,113   686,906 808,537 908,308   2.00 1.78 1.44
North Carolina 4,560 5,825 6,491   242,904 285,651 324,622   1.88 2.04 2.00
North Dakota 119 461 558   16,936 18,527 22,715   0.71 2.49 2.46
Ohio 6,970 8,790 7,816   348,723 374,719 424,562   2.00 2.35 1.84
Oklahoma 513 872 814   79,341 94,329 111,400   0.65 0.92 0.73
Oregon 1,910 5,447 3,664   100,951 110,916 135,014   1.89 4.91 2.71
Pennsylvania 8,762 11,156 10,813   361,800 406,713 464,467   2.42 2.74 2.33
Rhode Island 1,677 1,579 1,840   29,537 35,149 42,213   5.68 4.49 4.36
South Carolina 989 1,447 1,599   102,945 117,296 132,348   0.96 1.23 1.21
South Dakota 60 141 149   20,771 23,910 29,519   0.29 0.59 0.50
Tennessee 2,503 2,651 3,180   160,872 180,582 214,400   1.56 1.47 1.48
Texas 10,774 12,722 14,266   629,209 762,247 904,412   1.71 1.67 1.58
Utah 1,495 1,495 1,602   60,168 70,109 81,059   2.48 2.13 1.98
Vermont 175 423 546   15,935 18,828 22,002   1.10 2.24 2.48
Virginia 4,934 5,544 7,345   226,569 276,762 325,467   2.18 2.00 2.26
Washington 8,466 10,372 10,936   195,794 225,765 252,384   4.32 4.59 4.33
West Virginia 421 466 523   39,500 43,365 49,903   1.07 1.07 1.05
Wisconsin 2,501 3,249 3,675   160,681 181,936 208,269   1.56 1.79 1.76
Wyoming 65 82 98   14,859 18,941 23,876   0.44 0.44 0.41
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   54,086 69,208 79,209   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: R&D includes R&D performed by federal agencies, industry, universities, and other nonprofit organizations. R&D and GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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