Financial Research and Development Inputs

Federal R&D Obligations per Civilian Worker: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    ($13,588–$836)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($773–$427)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($391–$234)
  • 4th quartile
    ($226–$121)

Quartiles

Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker: 2005
 
1st quartile
($13,588–$836)
2nd Quartile
($773–$427)
3rd Quartile
($391–$234)
4th Quartile
($226–$121)
 
Alabama Alaska Florida Arkansas
Arizona Hawaii Georgia Delaware
California New Hampshire Idaho Indiana
Colorado New Jersey Illinois Kansas
Connecticut New York Iowa Kentucky
District of Columbia North Carolina Maine Louisiana
Maryland Ohio Michigan Nebraska
Massachusetts Pennsylvania Minnesota Oklahoma
Missouri Tennessee Mississippi South Carolina
New Mexico Texas Montana South Dakota
Rhode Island Utah Nevada Wisconsin
Virginia Vermont North Dakota Wyoming
West Virginia Washington Oregon  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Federal R&D obligations rose from $67 billion in 1995 to nearly $107 billion in 2005, an increase of 59% in current dollars.
  • The increase in federal R&D obligations (in current dollars) was greater than the increase in the civilian workforce causing the value of this indicator to rise from $532 per worker in 1995 to $753 per worker
    in 2005.
  • Federal R&D obligations in 2005 varied greatly among the states, ranging from $121 to $4,329 per worker. Higher values were found in the states surrounding the District of Columbia and in sparsely populated states with national laboratories or federal facilities.
  • The District of Columbia was an outlier with $13,588 per worker in 2005, possibly because many federal employees work there but live in neighboring states.
  • Between 1995 and 2005, the value of R&D obligations per worker increased in 44 states and the District of Columbia and decreased in 6 states.

Description

This indicator shows how federal R&D funding is disbursed geographically relative to the size of states' civilian workforces. Because the Department of Defense is the primary source for federal R&D obligations, much of this funding is used for development, but it also may provide direct and indirect benefits to a state's economy and may stimulate the conduct of basic research. A high value may indicate the existence of major federally funded R&D facilities in the state.

Federal R&D dollars are attributed to the states in which the recipients of federal obligations are located. The size of a state's civilian workforce is estimated based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, which assigns workers to a location based on residence. Because of these differences and the sample-based nature of the population data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.

Data Table

Table 8-32
Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Federal R&D obligations ($thousands)   Civilian workers   Federal R&D obligations/
civilian worker ($)
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 67,033,110 71,034,535 106,743,406   126,063,353 136,940,378 141,739,774   532 519 753
Alabama 2,016,252 1,614,901 2,800,183   1,955,846 2,067,147 2,056,800   1,031 781 1,361
Alaska 96,915 146,777 233,543   282,098 299,324 318,423   344 490 733
Arizona 915,087 1,121,701 2,674,487   2,095,749 2,404,916 2,727,003   437 466 981
Arkansas 97,724 116,333 154,255   1,170,593 1,207,352 1,276,851   83 96 121
California 12,703,572 14,082,960 19,379,567   14,062,361 16,024,341 16,782,260   903 879 1,155
Colorado 965,060 1,369,733 2,036,617   2,041,652 2,300,192 2,436,795   473 595 836
Connecticut 902,334 806,228 2,153,517   1,657,732 1,697,670 1,734,386   544 475 1,242
Delaware 56,381 69,867 94,151   366,200 402,777 415,687   154 173 226
District of Columbia 2,805,093 2,374,647 3,993,434   273,764 291,916 293,900   10,246 8,135 13,588
Florida 2,403,899 2,216,206 2,197,889   6,655,500 7,569,406 8,375,993   361 293 262
Georgia 4,365,770 2,632,186 1,707,465   3,522,905 4,095,362 4,384,030   1,239 643 389
Hawaii 480,428 209,737 384,401   557,042 584,858 614,290   862 359 626
Idaho 211,063 216,928 273,093   567,558 632,451 698,466   372 343 391
Illinois 1,116,137 1,404,613 1,982,619   5,857,677 6,176,837 6,112,981   191 227 324
Indiana 426,192 506,326 553,616   2,977,440 3,052,719 3,054,803   143 166 181
Iowa 214,316 267,038 447,661   1,527,972 1,557,081 1,568,561   140 171 285
Kansas 120,846 223,493 198,017   1,296,202 1,351,988 1,389,201   93 165 143
Kentucky 75,670 203,851 262,780   1,757,111 1,866,348 1,879,413   43 109 140
Louisiana 176,253 249,045 402,068   1,820,359 1,930,662 1,938,280   97 129 207
Maine 54,476 249,812 239,831   601,565 650,385 669,250   91 384 358
Maryland 7,039,183 8,684,796 12,211,434   2,572,708 2,711,382 2,820,526   2,736 3,203 4,329
Massachusetts 3,339,532 4,145,472 5,701,829   3,029,360 3,273,281 3,211,033   1,102 1,266 1,776
Michigan 688,376 975,052 1,105,199   4,576,521 4,953,421 4,726,204   150 197 234
Minnesota 571,128 781,132 758,267   2,529,464 2,720,492 2,796,622   226 287 271
Mississippi 212,739 394,585 424,101   1,175,278 1,239,859 1,226,492   181 318 346
Missouri 1,613,322 890,597 4,040,346   2,690,210 2,875,336 2,847,758   600 310 1,419
Montana 64,821 95,025 176,841   417,770 446,552 463,929   155 213 381
Nebraska 86,762 98,491 145,135   882,603 923,198 940,040   98 107 154
Nevada 372,570 263,897 382,463   805,286 1,015,221 1,178,072   463 260 325
New Hampshire 213,647 356,873 364,332   605,929 675,541 703,175   353 528 518
New Jersey 1,325,902 1,937,769 2,344,121   3,846,322 4,130,310 4,255,813   345 469 551
New Mexico 1,987,076 2,130,504 3,279,285   744,557 810,024 867,317   2,669 2,630 3,781
New York 2,581,383 2,927,523 4,955,670   8,125,798 8,751,441 8,959,845   318 335 553
North Carolina 825,433 1,062,536 1,791,495   3,582,647 3,969,235 4,112,828   230 268 436
North Dakota 47,313 64,051 105,109   331,252 335,780 341,847   143 191 307
Ohio 1,811,413 1,799,136 2,369,822   5,330,591 5,573,154 5,546,537   340 323 427
Oklahoma 159,395 185,121 253,602   1,490,602 1,609,522 1,629,217   107 115 156
Oregon 277,229 468,167 557,481   1,583,153 1,716,954 1,754,715   175 273 318
Pennsylvania 2,414,250 2,357,552 3,234,522   5,554,303 5,830,902 5,966,226   435 404 542
Rhode Island 515,425 418,037 572,251   477,409 520,758 539,709   1,080 803 1,060
South Carolina 177,962 248,988 408,407   1,754,633 1,902,029 1,939,646   101 131 211
South Dakota 26,492 38,803 69,982   373,515 397,678 411,551   71 98 170
Tennessee 581,956 734,406 1,292,888   2,574,000 2,756,498 2,758,184   226 266 469
Texas 4,062,175 2,671,790 4,988,545   8,985,635 9,896,002 10,677,171   452 270 467
Utah 371,208 285,968 813,912   979,367 1,097,915 1,211,803   379 260 672
Vermont 53,590 72,030 170,743   305,279 326,742 341,442   176 220 500
Virginia 3,603,023 4,842,811 8,214,449   3,317,434 3,502,524 3,785,583   1,086 1,383 2,170
Washington 1,127,750 1,329,466 2,387,686   2,636,011 2,898,677 3,089,953   428 459 773
West Virginia 296,347 235,677 772,528   723,904 764,649 754,060   409 308 1,024
Wisconsin 347,089 420,839 648,219   2,773,640 2,894,884 2,887,434   125 145 224
Wyoming 35,151 35,059 33,548   240,846 256,685 267,669   146 137 125
 
Puerto Rico 46,657 81,016 101,433   1,076,473 1,162,153 1,250,335   43 70 81
 

NOTES: Only 11 agencies required to report federal R&D obligations: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security (not established in 1995 and 2000), Interior, and Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation. These obligations represent approximately 98% of total federal R&D obligations in FY 1995, 2000, and 2005. Civilian workers represent employed component of civilian labor force and reported as annual data not seasonally adjusted.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    ($13,588–$836)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($773–$427)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($391–$234)
  • 4th quartile
    ($226–$121)

Quartiles

Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker: 2005
 
1st quartile
($13,588–$836)
2nd Quartile
($773–$427)
3rd Quartile
($391–$234)
4th Quartile
($226–$121)
 
Alabama Alaska Florida Arkansas
Arizona Hawaii Georgia Delaware
California New Hampshire Idaho Indiana
Colorado New Jersey Illinois Kansas
Connecticut New York Iowa Kentucky
District of Columbia North Carolina Maine Louisiana
Maryland Ohio Michigan Nebraska
Massachusetts Pennsylvania Minnesota Oklahoma
Missouri Tennessee Mississippi South Carolina
New Mexico Texas Montana South Dakota
Rhode Island Utah Nevada Wisconsin
Virginia Vermont North Dakota Wyoming
West Virginia Washington Oregon  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Federal R&D obligations rose from $67 billion in 1995 to nearly $107 billion in 2005, an increase of 59% in current dollars.
  • The increase in federal R&D obligations (in current dollars) was greater than the increase in the civilian workforce causing the value of this indicator to rise from $532 per worker in 1995 to $753 per worker
    in 2005.
  • Federal R&D obligations in 2005 varied greatly among the states, ranging from $121 to $4,329 per worker. Higher values were found in the states surrounding the District of Columbia and in sparsely populated states with national laboratories or federal facilities.
  • The District of Columbia was an outlier with $13,588 per worker in 2005, possibly because many federal employees work there but live in neighboring states.
  • Between 1995 and 2005, the value of R&D obligations per worker increased in 44 states and the District of Columbia and decreased in 6 states.

Description

This indicator shows how federal R&D funding is disbursed geographically relative to the size of states' civilian workforces. Because the Department of Defense is the primary source for federal R&D obligations, much of this funding is used for development, but it also may provide direct and indirect benefits to a state's economy and may stimulate the conduct of basic research. A high value may indicate the existence of major federally funded R&D facilities in the state.

Federal R&D dollars are attributed to the states in which the recipients of federal obligations are located. The size of a state's civilian workforce is estimated based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, which assigns workers to a location based on residence. Because of these differences and the sample-based nature of the population data, estimates for sparsely populated states and the District of Columbia may be imprecise.

Data Table

Table 8-32
Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Federal R&D obligations ($thousands)   Civilian workers   Federal R&D obligations/
civilian worker ($)
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 67,033,110 71,034,535 106,743,406   126,063,353 136,940,378 141,739,774   532 519 753
Alabama 2,016,252 1,614,901 2,800,183   1,955,846 2,067,147 2,056,800   1,031 781 1,361
Alaska 96,915 146,777 233,543   282,098 299,324 318,423   344 490 733
Arizona 915,087 1,121,701 2,674,487   2,095,749 2,404,916 2,727,003   437 466 981
Arkansas 97,724 116,333 154,255   1,170,593 1,207,352 1,276,851   83 96 121
California 12,703,572 14,082,960 19,379,567   14,062,361 16,024,341 16,782,260   903 879 1,155
Colorado 965,060 1,369,733 2,036,617   2,041,652 2,300,192 2,436,795   473 595 836
Connecticut 902,334 806,228 2,153,517   1,657,732 1,697,670 1,734,386   544 475 1,242
Delaware 56,381 69,867 94,151   366,200 402,777 415,687   154 173 226
District of Columbia 2,805,093 2,374,647 3,993,434   273,764 291,916 293,900   10,246 8,135 13,588
Florida 2,403,899 2,216,206 2,197,889   6,655,500 7,569,406 8,375,993   361 293 262
Georgia 4,365,770 2,632,186 1,707,465   3,522,905 4,095,362 4,384,030   1,239 643 389
Hawaii 480,428 209,737 384,401   557,042 584,858 614,290   862 359 626
Idaho 211,063 216,928 273,093   567,558 632,451 698,466   372 343 391
Illinois 1,116,137 1,404,613 1,982,619   5,857,677 6,176,837 6,112,981   191 227 324
Indiana 426,192 506,326 553,616   2,977,440 3,052,719 3,054,803   143 166 181
Iowa 214,316 267,038 447,661   1,527,972 1,557,081 1,568,561   140 171 285
Kansas 120,846 223,493 198,017   1,296,202 1,351,988 1,389,201   93 165 143
Kentucky 75,670 203,851 262,780   1,757,111 1,866,348 1,879,413   43 109 140
Louisiana 176,253 249,045 402,068   1,820,359 1,930,662 1,938,280   97 129 207
Maine 54,476 249,812 239,831   601,565 650,385 669,250   91 384 358
Maryland 7,039,183 8,684,796 12,211,434   2,572,708 2,711,382 2,820,526   2,736 3,203 4,329
Massachusetts 3,339,532 4,145,472 5,701,829   3,029,360 3,273,281 3,211,033   1,102 1,266 1,776
Michigan 688,376 975,052 1,105,199   4,576,521 4,953,421 4,726,204   150 197 234
Minnesota 571,128 781,132 758,267   2,529,464 2,720,492 2,796,622   226 287 271
Mississippi 212,739 394,585 424,101   1,175,278 1,239,859 1,226,492   181 318 346
Missouri 1,613,322 890,597 4,040,346   2,690,210 2,875,336 2,847,758   600 310 1,419
Montana 64,821 95,025 176,841   417,770 446,552 463,929   155 213 381
Nebraska 86,762 98,491 145,135   882,603 923,198 940,040   98 107 154
Nevada 372,570 263,897 382,463   805,286 1,015,221 1,178,072   463 260 325
New Hampshire 213,647 356,873 364,332   605,929 675,541 703,175   353 528 518
New Jersey 1,325,902 1,937,769 2,344,121   3,846,322 4,130,310 4,255,813   345 469 551
New Mexico 1,987,076 2,130,504 3,279,285   744,557 810,024 867,317   2,669 2,630 3,781
New York 2,581,383 2,927,523 4,955,670   8,125,798 8,751,441 8,959,845   318 335 553
North Carolina 825,433 1,062,536 1,791,495   3,582,647 3,969,235 4,112,828   230 268 436
North Dakota 47,313 64,051 105,109   331,252 335,780 341,847   143 191 307
Ohio 1,811,413 1,799,136 2,369,822   5,330,591 5,573,154 5,546,537   340 323 427
Oklahoma 159,395 185,121 253,602   1,490,602 1,609,522 1,629,217   107 115 156
Oregon 277,229 468,167 557,481   1,583,153 1,716,954 1,754,715   175 273 318
Pennsylvania 2,414,250 2,357,552 3,234,522   5,554,303 5,830,902 5,966,226   435 404 542
Rhode Island 515,425 418,037 572,251   477,409 520,758 539,709   1,080 803 1,060
South Carolina 177,962 248,988 408,407   1,754,633 1,902,029 1,939,646   101 131 211
South Dakota 26,492 38,803 69,982   373,515 397,678 411,551   71 98 170
Tennessee 581,956 734,406 1,292,888   2,574,000 2,756,498 2,758,184   226 266 469
Texas 4,062,175 2,671,790 4,988,545   8,985,635 9,896,002 10,677,171   452 270 467
Utah 371,208 285,968 813,912   979,367 1,097,915 1,211,803   379 260 672
Vermont 53,590 72,030 170,743   305,279 326,742 341,442   176 220 500
Virginia 3,603,023 4,842,811 8,214,449   3,317,434 3,502,524 3,785,583   1,086 1,383 2,170
Washington 1,127,750 1,329,466 2,387,686   2,636,011 2,898,677 3,089,953   428 459 773
West Virginia 296,347 235,677 772,528   723,904 764,649 754,060   409 308 1,024
Wisconsin 347,089 420,839 648,219   2,773,640 2,894,884 2,887,434   125 145 224
Wyoming 35,151 35,059 33,548   240,846 256,685 267,669   146 137 125
 
Puerto Rico 46,657 81,016 101,433   1,076,473 1,162,153 1,250,335   43 70 81
 

NOTES: Only 11 agencies required to report federal R&D obligations: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security (not established in 1995 and 2000), Interior, and Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation. These obligations represent approximately 98% of total federal R&D obligations in FY 1995, 2000, and 2005. Civilian workers represent employed component of civilian labor force and reported as annual data not seasonally adjusted.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
Right-click on image to save.