Research and Development Outputs

Industry-Performed R&D as Share of Private-Industry Output: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    (5.04%–2.23%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (2.17%–1.41%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (1.37%–0.55%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.49%–0.10%)

Quartiles

Industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output: 2005
 
1st quartile
(5.04%–2.23%)
2nd Quartile
(2.17%–1.41%)
3rd Quartile
(1.37%–0.55%)
4th Quartile
(0.49%–0.10%)
 
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Colorado Idaho Florida Arkansas
Connecticut Illinois Georgia District of Columbia
Delaware Indiana Iowa Hawaii
Kansas Maryland Kentucky Louisiana
Massachusetts North Carolina Maine Mississippi
Michigan Ohio Missouri Montana
Minnesota Pennsylvania Nebraska Nevada
New Hampshire Texas New Mexico North Dakota
New Jersey Utah New York Oklahoma
Oregon Vermont South Carolina South Dakota
Rhode Island Virginia Tennessee Wyoming
Washington Wisconsin West Virginia  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The amount of R&D performed by industry rose from $164 billion in 1998 to $222 billion in 2005, an increase of 36% (unadjusted for inflation).
  • The value of this indicator for the United States has shown a downward trend over the past 7 years; starting at 2.14% in 1998, it declined to 2.03% in 2002 and has held steady through 2005.
  • Industrial R&D is concentrated in a few states—only 14 states had indicator values exceeding the national average in 2005.
  • States with high values for this indicator were usually located on the West Coast or the northern half of the East Coast.

Description

This indicator measures the emphasis that private industry places on R&D. Industrial R&D focuses on projects that are expected to yield new or improved products, processes, or services and to bring direct benefits to the company. A high value for this indicator shows that the companies and industries within a state are making major investments in their R&D activities.

Differences among states on this indicator should be interpreted with caution. Because industries differ in their reliance on R&D, the indicator reflects state differences in industrial structure as much as the behavior of individual companies. Furthermore, industrial R&D data for states with small economies may be based on data imputed from previous years' survey results and imprecise estimates.

The methodology for making state-level assignments of the industrial R&D reported by companies with operations in multiple states changed in 1998. Industrial R&D data from years before 1998 are not comparable.

Data Table

Table 8-34
Industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output, by state: 1998, 2002, and 2005
 
  Industry-performed
R&D ($millions)
  Private-industry output ($millions)   Industry-performed R&D/private-industry output (%)
State 1998 2002 2005    1998 2002 2005    1998 2002 2005
 
United States 163,658 185,505 222,427   7,652,500 9,131,170 10,892,216   2.14 2.03 2.04
Alabama 845 846 1,417   89,994 104,211 128,397   0.94 0.81 1.10
Alaska 37 51 32   18,175 23,302 32,416   0.20 0.22 0.10
Arizona 1,801 3,201 2,980   120,484 150,429 185,757   1.49 2.13 1.60
Arkansas 213 225 271   54,258 62,883 75,322   0.39 0.36 0.36
California 32,856 42,177 50,683   965,937 1,184,559 1,435,610   3.40 3.56 3.53
Colorado 3,180 2,823 4,299   126,013 160,289 188,879   2.52 1.76 2.28
Connecticut 3,346 6,077 7,885   132,955 150,755 176,328   2.52 4.03 4.47
Delaware 1,356 1,219 1,511   33,652 41,196 52,017   4.03 2.96 2.90
District of Columbia 598 194 166   32,710 43,937 54,453   1.83 0.44 0.30
Florida 3,265 3,707 4,164   365,813 459,933 590,516   0.89 0.81 0.71
Georgia 1,617 2,107 2,282   224,870 267,441 311,917   0.72 0.79 0.73
Hawaii 55 103 168   29,201 33,619 42,515   0.19 0.31 0.40
Idaho 1,103 992 642   25,510 31,197 39,542   4.32 3.18 1.62
Illinois 7,318 7,616 9,712   384,342 438,363 500,730   1.90 1.74 1.94
Indiana 2,922 3,572 4,610   161,797 184,923 212,463   1.81 1.93 2.17
Iowa 750 753 1,039   73,908 85,652 104,033   1.01 0.88 1.00
Kansas 1,384 1,427 1,993   65,697 77,183 89,350   2.11 1.85 2.23
Kentucky 606 656 660   94,081 103,514 118,016   0.64 0.63 0.56
Louisiana 377 248 300   103,343 116,505 159,901   0.36 0.21 0.19
Maine 137 250 350   27,363 33,121 38,543   0.50 0.75 0.91
Maryland 1,905 3,800 3,706   133,482 168,770 203,772   1.43 2.25 1.82
Massachusetts 10,367 10,609 13,342   214,890 258,688 291,776   4.82 4.10 4.57
Michigan 12,554 13,565 16,752   278,874 313,384 332,057   4.50 4.33 5.04
Minnesota 3,367 4,460 6,340   148,057 177,427 207,306   2.27 2.51 3.06
Mississippi 183 224 194   50,894 56,215 65,879   0.36 0.40 0.29
Missouri 1,505 1,592 2,602   146,453 166,436 190,015   1.03 0.96 1.37
Montana 63 66 77   16,607 19,565 25,066   0.38 0.34 0.31
Nebraska 195 342 407   44,485 50,901 62,166   0.44 0.67 0.65
Nevada 476 339 382   56,995 72,826 99,213   0.84 0.47 0.39
New Hampshire 1,138 1,153 1,435   35,812 41,991 49,161   3.18 2.75 2.92
New Jersey 11,107 11,566 13,214   282,938 335,111 383,478   3.93 3.45 3.45
New Mexico 1,450 331 405   37,455 41,702 56,803   3.87 0.79 0.71
New York 10,283 9,234 9,474   614,396 736,066 861,618   1.67 1.25 1.10
North Carolina 3,483 3,704 5,158   212,790 259,825 305,739   1.64 1.43 1.69
North Dakota 46 154 104   14,277 16,671 21,012   0.32 0.92 0.49
Ohio 5,742 6,230 5,900   312,647 346,524 393,696   1.84 1.80 1.50
Oklahoma 369 412 422   65,997 80,492 102,166   0.56 0.51 0.41
Oregon 1,345 2,320 3,252   88,532 100,222 122,121   1.52 2.31 2.66
Pennsylvania 7,393 7,064 8,846   324,847 381,405 437,693   2.28 1.85 2.02
Rhode Island 1,332 1,121 1,387   25,892 32,294 38,160   5.14 3.47 3.63
South Carolina 996 1,054 1,402   87,771 102,565 117,441   1.13 1.03 1.19
South Dakota 40 53 68   17,932 23,084 26,493   0.22 0.23 0.26
Tennessee 2,440 1,289 1,246   142,438 169,564 200,821   1.71 0.76 0.62
Texas 8,984 10,744 12,438   558,165 691,968 882,277   1.61 1.55 1.41
Utah 1,119 1,116 1,234   51,610 61,934 75,777   2.17 1.80 1.63
Vermont 114 286 360   13,976 16,974 19,963   0.82 1.68 1.80
Virginia 2,540 2,920 4,379   186,444 235,685 290,120   1.36 1.24 1.51
Washington 7,072 8,579 9,736   168,427 198,461 233,449   4.20 4.32 4.17
West Virginia 335 264 242   33,440 37,308 43,913   1.00 0.71 0.55
Wisconsin 1,929 2,649 2,729   143,368 167,489 192,732   1.35 1.58 1.42
Wyoming 20 21 30   12,506 16,611 23,628   0.16 0.13 0.13
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   NA NA NA   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

NOTES: In 1998, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. In 1998, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Kansas, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Washington. In 2002, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Wisconsin. In 2002, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Kansas, Maine, Oregon, and Vermont. In 2005, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska. In 2005, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Indiana, Kansas, Montana, and Rhode Island. Private-industry output reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (5.04%–2.23%)
  • 2nd quartile
    (2.17%–1.41%)
  • 3rd quartile
    (1.37%–0.55%)
  • 4th quartile
    (0.49%–0.10%)

Quartiles

Industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output: 2005
 
1st quartile
(5.04%–2.23%)
2nd Quartile
(2.17%–1.41%)
3rd Quartile
(1.37%–0.55%)
4th Quartile
(0.49%–0.10%)
 
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Colorado Idaho Florida Arkansas
Connecticut Illinois Georgia District of Columbia
Delaware Indiana Iowa Hawaii
Kansas Maryland Kentucky Louisiana
Massachusetts North Carolina Maine Mississippi
Michigan Ohio Missouri Montana
Minnesota Pennsylvania Nebraska Nevada
New Hampshire Texas New Mexico North Dakota
New Jersey Utah New York Oklahoma
Oregon Vermont South Carolina South Dakota
Rhode Island Virginia Tennessee Wyoming
Washington Wisconsin West Virginia  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The amount of R&D performed by industry rose from $164 billion in 1998 to $222 billion in 2005, an increase of 36% (unadjusted for inflation).
  • The value of this indicator for the United States has shown a downward trend over the past 7 years; starting at 2.14% in 1998, it declined to 2.03% in 2002 and has held steady through 2005.
  • Industrial R&D is concentrated in a few states—only 14 states had indicator values exceeding the national average in 2005.
  • States with high values for this indicator were usually located on the West Coast or the northern half of the East Coast.

Description

This indicator measures the emphasis that private industry places on R&D. Industrial R&D focuses on projects that are expected to yield new or improved products, processes, or services and to bring direct benefits to the company. A high value for this indicator shows that the companies and industries within a state are making major investments in their R&D activities.

Differences among states on this indicator should be interpreted with caution. Because industries differ in their reliance on R&D, the indicator reflects state differences in industrial structure as much as the behavior of individual companies. Furthermore, industrial R&D data for states with small economies may be based on data imputed from previous years' survey results and imprecise estimates.

The methodology for making state-level assignments of the industrial R&D reported by companies with operations in multiple states changed in 1998. Industrial R&D data from years before 1998 are not comparable.

Data Table

Table 8-34
Industry-performed R&D as share of private-industry output, by state: 1998, 2002, and 2005
 
  Industry-performed
R&D ($millions)
  Private-industry output ($millions)   Industry-performed R&D/private-industry output (%)
State 1998 2002 2005    1998 2002 2005    1998 2002 2005
 
United States 163,658 185,505 222,427   7,652,500 9,131,170 10,892,216   2.14 2.03 2.04
Alabama 845 846 1,417   89,994 104,211 128,397   0.94 0.81 1.10
Alaska 37 51 32   18,175 23,302 32,416   0.20 0.22 0.10
Arizona 1,801 3,201 2,980   120,484 150,429 185,757   1.49 2.13 1.60
Arkansas 213 225 271   54,258 62,883 75,322   0.39 0.36 0.36
California 32,856 42,177 50,683   965,937 1,184,559 1,435,610   3.40 3.56 3.53
Colorado 3,180 2,823 4,299   126,013 160,289 188,879   2.52 1.76 2.28
Connecticut 3,346 6,077 7,885   132,955 150,755 176,328   2.52 4.03 4.47
Delaware 1,356 1,219 1,511   33,652 41,196 52,017   4.03 2.96 2.90
District of Columbia 598 194 166   32,710 43,937 54,453   1.83 0.44 0.30
Florida 3,265 3,707 4,164   365,813 459,933 590,516   0.89 0.81 0.71
Georgia 1,617 2,107 2,282   224,870 267,441 311,917   0.72 0.79 0.73
Hawaii 55 103 168   29,201 33,619 42,515   0.19 0.31 0.40
Idaho 1,103 992 642   25,510 31,197 39,542   4.32 3.18 1.62
Illinois 7,318 7,616 9,712   384,342 438,363 500,730   1.90 1.74 1.94
Indiana 2,922 3,572 4,610   161,797 184,923 212,463   1.81 1.93 2.17
Iowa 750 753 1,039   73,908 85,652 104,033   1.01 0.88 1.00
Kansas 1,384 1,427 1,993   65,697 77,183 89,350   2.11 1.85 2.23
Kentucky 606 656 660   94,081 103,514 118,016   0.64 0.63 0.56
Louisiana 377 248 300   103,343 116,505 159,901   0.36 0.21 0.19
Maine 137 250 350   27,363 33,121 38,543   0.50 0.75 0.91
Maryland 1,905 3,800 3,706   133,482 168,770 203,772   1.43 2.25 1.82
Massachusetts 10,367 10,609 13,342   214,890 258,688 291,776   4.82 4.10 4.57
Michigan 12,554 13,565 16,752   278,874 313,384 332,057   4.50 4.33 5.04
Minnesota 3,367 4,460 6,340   148,057 177,427 207,306   2.27 2.51 3.06
Mississippi 183 224 194   50,894 56,215 65,879   0.36 0.40 0.29
Missouri 1,505 1,592 2,602   146,453 166,436 190,015   1.03 0.96 1.37
Montana 63 66 77   16,607 19,565 25,066   0.38 0.34 0.31
Nebraska 195 342 407   44,485 50,901 62,166   0.44 0.67 0.65
Nevada 476 339 382   56,995 72,826 99,213   0.84 0.47 0.39
New Hampshire 1,138 1,153 1,435   35,812 41,991 49,161   3.18 2.75 2.92
New Jersey 11,107 11,566 13,214   282,938 335,111 383,478   3.93 3.45 3.45
New Mexico 1,450 331 405   37,455 41,702 56,803   3.87 0.79 0.71
New York 10,283 9,234 9,474   614,396 736,066 861,618   1.67 1.25 1.10
North Carolina 3,483 3,704 5,158   212,790 259,825 305,739   1.64 1.43 1.69
North Dakota 46 154 104   14,277 16,671 21,012   0.32 0.92 0.49
Ohio 5,742 6,230 5,900   312,647 346,524 393,696   1.84 1.80 1.50
Oklahoma 369 412 422   65,997 80,492 102,166   0.56 0.51 0.41
Oregon 1,345 2,320 3,252   88,532 100,222 122,121   1.52 2.31 2.66
Pennsylvania 7,393 7,064 8,846   324,847 381,405 437,693   2.28 1.85 2.02
Rhode Island 1,332 1,121 1,387   25,892 32,294 38,160   5.14 3.47 3.63
South Carolina 996 1,054 1,402   87,771 102,565 117,441   1.13 1.03 1.19
South Dakota 40 53 68   17,932 23,084 26,493   0.22 0.23 0.26
Tennessee 2,440 1,289 1,246   142,438 169,564 200,821   1.71 0.76 0.62
Texas 8,984 10,744 12,438   558,165 691,968 882,277   1.61 1.55 1.41
Utah 1,119 1,116 1,234   51,610 61,934 75,777   2.17 1.80 1.63
Vermont 114 286 360   13,976 16,974 19,963   0.82 1.68 1.80
Virginia 2,540 2,920 4,379   186,444 235,685 290,120   1.36 1.24 1.51
Washington 7,072 8,579 9,736   168,427 198,461 233,449   4.20 4.32 4.17
West Virginia 335 264 242   33,440 37,308 43,913   1.00 0.71 0.55
Wisconsin 1,929 2,649 2,729   143,368 167,489 192,732   1.35 1.58 1.42
Wyoming 20 21 30   12,506 16,611 23,628   0.16 0.13 0.13
 
Puerto Rico NA NA NA   NA NA NA   NA NA NA
 

NA = not available

NOTES: In 1998, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska, Arkansas, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. In 1998, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Kansas, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Washington. In 2002, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Wisconsin. In 2002, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Kansas, Maine, Oregon, and Vermont. In 2005, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed because of raking of state data for Alaska. In 2005, >50% of industrial R&D value imputed for Indiana, Kansas, Montana, and Rhode Island. Private-industry output reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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