Research and Development Outputs

Academic R&D per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    ($6.87–$4.58)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($4.53–$3.56)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($3.47–$3.06)
  • 4th quartile
    ($2.73–$1.62)

Quartiles

Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross domestic product: 2005
 
1st quartile
($6.87–$4.58)
2nd Quartile
($4.53–$3.56)
3rd Quartile
($3.47–$3.06)
4th Quartile
($2.73–$1.62)
 
Iowa Alabama Arizona Arkansas
Maryland Alaska Connecticut Delaware
Massachusetts California Illinois Florida
Montana Colorado Indiana Idaho
Nebraska District of Columbia Kansas Maine
New Hampshire Georgia Kentucky Minnesota
New Mexico Hawaii Louisiana Nevada
North Carolina Michigan Ohio New Jersey
North Dakota Mississippi South Carolina Oklahoma
Pennsylvania Missouri Tennessee South Dakota
Rhode Island New York Texas Virginia
Vermont Oregon Washington West Virginia
Wisconsin Utah Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Expenditures for research performed in academic institutions have doubled in a decade, rising from $21.6 billion in 1995 to $44.9 billion in 2005 (unadjusted for inflation).
  • In the United States, academic research increased more rapidly than GDP, causing the value of this indicator to increase by 21% between 1995 and 2005. During this period, 45 states reported increases in the value of this indicator and 5 states and the District of Columbia showed decreases.
  • The largest percentage increases in academic R&D as a share of GDP occurred in Hawaii and Mississippi, where the value of this indicator approximately doubled between 1995 and 2005.
  • States ranking high on the intensity of academic research usually did not rank high on the intensity of industrial research.

Description

This indicator measures the extent of spending on academic research performed in a state relative to the size of the state's economy. Academic R&D is more basic and less product oriented than R&D performed by industry. It can be a valuable basis for future economic development. High values for this indicator may reflect an academic R&D system that can compete for funding from federal, state, and industrial sources.

In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at the Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 people and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research. Data for the value of gross domestic product (GDP) by state and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.

Data Table

Table 8-35
Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Academic R&D ($thousands)   State GDP ($millions)   Academic R&D/
$1,000 GDP
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 21,649,053 29,551,103 44,945,923   7,232,723 9,749,104 12,372,847   2.99 3.03 3.63
Alabama 336,644 428,122 589,860   94,021 114,576 151,342   3.58 3.74 3.90
Alaska 72,453 108,099 153,721   24,805 27,034 39,394   2.92 4.00 3.90
Arizona 380,216 465,777 720,184   104,036 158,533 212,312   3.65 2.94 3.39
Arkansas 94,257 131,868 209,518   53,303 66,801 87,004   1.77 1.97 2.41
California 2,666,631 4,065,130 6,272,890   908,963 1,287,145 1,616,351   2.93 3.16 3.88
Colorado 399,315 544,584 825,984   108,043 171,862 214,337   3.70 3.17 3.85
Connecticut 380,511 468,435 669,199   120,800 160,436 193,496   3.15 2.92 3.46
Delaware 54,197 78,126 115,751   27,507 41,472 56,731   1.97 1.88 2.04
District of Columbia 187,695 245,828 302,921   47,123 58,699 82,628   3.98 4.19 3.67
Florida 608,896 851,932 1,448,634   340,501 471,316 666,639   1.79 1.81 2.17
Georgia 684,492 926,749 1,274,410   199,138 290,887 358,365   3.44 3.19 3.56
Hawaii 78,429 161,300 240,247   36,572 40,202 54,773   2.14 4.01 4.39
Idaho 61,906 73,726 119,871   27,099 34,989 45,891   2.28 2.11 2.61
Illinois 831,644 1,170,743 1,770,938   359,723 464,194 555,599   2.31 2.52 3.19
Indiana 377,034 509,141 759,419   147,984 194,419 236,357   2.55 2.62 3.21
Iowa 323,535 418,263 548,237   71,905 90,186 117,635   4.50 4.64 4.66
Kansas 181,777 258,336 348,751   63,699 82,812 105,228   2.85 3.12 3.31
Kentucky 155,345 276,986 452,265   90,459 111,900 138,616   1.72 2.48 3.26
Louisiana 329,534 409,143 579,734   109,153 131,520 180,336   3.02 3.11 3.21
Maine 33,512 57,753 81,624   27,648 35,542 44,906   1.21 1.62 1.82
Maryland 762,306 1,070,630 1,678,649   137,391 180,367 244,447   5.55 5.94 6.87
Massachusetts 1,164,614 1,486,174 2,079,463   195,277 274,949 320,050   5.96 5.41 6.50
Michigan 779,483 1,007,582 1,455,849   251,017 337,235 372,148   3.11 2.99 3.91
Minnesota 342,003 418,029 559,585   131,357 185,093 231,437   2.60 2.26 2.42
Mississippi 118,436 217,064 353,445   53,816 64,266 79,786   2.20 3.38 4.43
Missouri 403,589 614,028 893,013   137,528 176,708 215,073   2.93 3.47 4.15
Montana 69,975 99,069 170,791   17,393 21,366 29,915   4.02 4.64 5.71
Nebraska 158,717 208,480 360,148   44,505 55,478 72,242   3.57 3.76 4.99
Nevada 86,902 106,154 178,492   48,974 73,719 110,158   1.77 1.44 1.62
New Hampshire 93,073 150,982 287,472   32,149 43,518 54,119   2.90 3.47 5.31
New Jersey 441,835 567,666 867,121   266,724 344,824 427,654   1.66 1.65 2.03
New Mexico 232,428 243,822 345,844   41,459 50,725 69,692   5.61 4.81 4.96
New York 1,780,233 2,291,749 3,604,414   594,444 777,157 961,385   2.99 2.95 3.75
North Carolina 720,413 1,039,812 1,652,049   191,579 273,698 350,700   3.76 3.80 4.71
North Dakota 59,617 67,406 149,994   14,515 17,752 24,935   4.11 3.80 6.02
Ohio 646,498 918,241 1,530,915   293,260 372,006 442,243   2.20 2.47 3.46
Oklahoma 189,722 252,419 291,697   69,580 89,757 121,558   2.73 2.81 2.40
Oregon 260,059 346,149 536,228   80,099 112,438 141,831   3.25 3.08 3.78
Pennsylvania 1,150,888 1,552,417 2,353,640   314,504 389,619 486,139   3.66 3.98 4.84
Rhode Island 99,408 129,697 199,709   25,666 33,609 43,623   3.87 3.86 4.58
South Carolina 227,727 294,274 486,399   86,053 112,514 140,088   2.65 2.62 3.47
South Dakota 21,747 27,589 67,012   17,807 23,099 30,541   1.22 1.19 2.19
Tennessee 310,766 405,291 726,078   135,655 174,851 224,995   2.29 2.32 3.23
Texas 1,510,543 2,037,681 3,073,724   507,441 727,233 989,333   2.98 2.80 3.11
Utah 202,212 308,059 400,276   46,303 67,568 88,364   4.37 4.56 4.53
Vermont 54,839 64,762 117,442   13,892 17,782 23,056   3.95 3.64 5.09
Virginia 452,717 553,924 914,166   185,490 260,743 350,692   2.44 2.12 2.61
Washington 494,333 643,757 901,102   151,338 221,961 271,381   3.27 2.90 3.32
West Virginia 53,510 73,420 145,150   36,362 41,476 53,091   1.47 1.77 2.73
Wisconsin 481,967 661,641 998,449   134,096 175,737 216,985   3.59 3.76 4.60
Wyoming 40,470 43,094 83,449   14,567 17,331 27,246   2.78 2.49 3.06
 
Puerto Rico 69,636 74,529 100,235   42,647 61,702 82,650   1.63 1.21 1.21
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: In 2000 and 2005, academic R&D reported for all institutions; in 1995, reported for doctorate-granting institutions only. For Maryland, academic R&D excludes R&D performed by Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    ($6.87–$4.58)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($4.53–$3.56)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($3.47–$3.06)
  • 4th quartile
    ($2.73–$1.62)

Quartiles

Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross domestic product: 2005
 
1st quartile
($6.87–$4.58)
2nd Quartile
($4.53–$3.56)
3rd Quartile
($3.47–$3.06)
4th Quartile
($2.73–$1.62)
 
Iowa Alabama Arizona Arkansas
Maryland Alaska Connecticut Delaware
Massachusetts California Illinois Florida
Montana Colorado Indiana Idaho
Nebraska District of Columbia Kansas Maine
New Hampshire Georgia Kentucky Minnesota
New Mexico Hawaii Louisiana Nevada
North Carolina Michigan Ohio New Jersey
North Dakota Mississippi South Carolina Oklahoma
Pennsylvania Missouri Tennessee South Dakota
Rhode Island New York Texas Virginia
Vermont Oregon Washington West Virginia
Wisconsin Utah Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years); and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Expenditures for research performed in academic institutions have doubled in a decade, rising from $21.6 billion in 1995 to $44.9 billion in 2005 (unadjusted for inflation).
  • In the United States, academic research increased more rapidly than GDP, causing the value of this indicator to increase by 21% between 1995 and 2005. During this period, 45 states reported increases in the value of this indicator and 5 states and the District of Columbia showed decreases.
  • The largest percentage increases in academic R&D as a share of GDP occurred in Hawaii and Mississippi, where the value of this indicator approximately doubled between 1995 and 2005.
  • States ranking high on the intensity of academic research usually did not rank high on the intensity of industrial research.

Description

This indicator measures the extent of spending on academic research performed in a state relative to the size of the state's economy. Academic R&D is more basic and less product oriented than R&D performed by industry. It can be a valuable basis for future economic development. High values for this indicator may reflect an academic R&D system that can compete for funding from federal, state, and industrial sources.

In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at the Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 people and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research. Data for the value of gross domestic product (GDP) by state and for R&D expenditures are shown in current dollars.

Data Table

Table 8-35
Academic R&D per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Academic R&D ($thousands)   State GDP ($millions)   Academic R&D/
$1,000 GDP
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 21,649,053 29,551,103 44,945,923   7,232,723 9,749,104 12,372,847   2.99 3.03 3.63
Alabama 336,644 428,122 589,860   94,021 114,576 151,342   3.58 3.74 3.90
Alaska 72,453 108,099 153,721   24,805 27,034 39,394   2.92 4.00 3.90
Arizona 380,216 465,777 720,184   104,036 158,533 212,312   3.65 2.94 3.39
Arkansas 94,257 131,868 209,518   53,303 66,801 87,004   1.77 1.97 2.41
California 2,666,631 4,065,130 6,272,890   908,963 1,287,145 1,616,351   2.93 3.16 3.88
Colorado 399,315 544,584 825,984   108,043 171,862 214,337   3.70 3.17 3.85
Connecticut 380,511 468,435 669,199   120,800 160,436 193,496   3.15 2.92 3.46
Delaware 54,197 78,126 115,751   27,507 41,472 56,731   1.97 1.88 2.04
District of Columbia 187,695 245,828 302,921   47,123 58,699 82,628   3.98 4.19 3.67
Florida 608,896 851,932 1,448,634   340,501 471,316 666,639   1.79 1.81 2.17
Georgia 684,492 926,749 1,274,410   199,138 290,887 358,365   3.44 3.19 3.56
Hawaii 78,429 161,300 240,247   36,572 40,202 54,773   2.14 4.01 4.39
Idaho 61,906 73,726 119,871   27,099 34,989 45,891   2.28 2.11 2.61
Illinois 831,644 1,170,743 1,770,938   359,723 464,194 555,599   2.31 2.52 3.19
Indiana 377,034 509,141 759,419   147,984 194,419 236,357   2.55 2.62 3.21
Iowa 323,535 418,263 548,237   71,905 90,186 117,635   4.50 4.64 4.66
Kansas 181,777 258,336 348,751   63,699 82,812 105,228   2.85 3.12 3.31
Kentucky 155,345 276,986 452,265   90,459 111,900 138,616   1.72 2.48 3.26
Louisiana 329,534 409,143 579,734   109,153 131,520 180,336   3.02 3.11 3.21
Maine 33,512 57,753 81,624   27,648 35,542 44,906   1.21 1.62 1.82
Maryland 762,306 1,070,630 1,678,649   137,391 180,367 244,447   5.55 5.94 6.87
Massachusetts 1,164,614 1,486,174 2,079,463   195,277 274,949 320,050   5.96 5.41 6.50
Michigan 779,483 1,007,582 1,455,849   251,017 337,235 372,148   3.11 2.99 3.91
Minnesota 342,003 418,029 559,585   131,357 185,093 231,437   2.60 2.26 2.42
Mississippi 118,436 217,064 353,445   53,816 64,266 79,786   2.20 3.38 4.43
Missouri 403,589 614,028 893,013   137,528 176,708 215,073   2.93 3.47 4.15
Montana 69,975 99,069 170,791   17,393 21,366 29,915   4.02 4.64 5.71
Nebraska 158,717 208,480 360,148   44,505 55,478 72,242   3.57 3.76 4.99
Nevada 86,902 106,154 178,492   48,974 73,719 110,158   1.77 1.44 1.62
New Hampshire 93,073 150,982 287,472   32,149 43,518 54,119   2.90 3.47 5.31
New Jersey 441,835 567,666 867,121   266,724 344,824 427,654   1.66 1.65 2.03
New Mexico 232,428 243,822 345,844   41,459 50,725 69,692   5.61 4.81 4.96
New York 1,780,233 2,291,749 3,604,414   594,444 777,157 961,385   2.99 2.95 3.75
North Carolina 720,413 1,039,812 1,652,049   191,579 273,698 350,700   3.76 3.80 4.71
North Dakota 59,617 67,406 149,994   14,515 17,752 24,935   4.11 3.80 6.02
Ohio 646,498 918,241 1,530,915   293,260 372,006 442,243   2.20 2.47 3.46
Oklahoma 189,722 252,419 291,697   69,580 89,757 121,558   2.73 2.81 2.40
Oregon 260,059 346,149 536,228   80,099 112,438 141,831   3.25 3.08 3.78
Pennsylvania 1,150,888 1,552,417 2,353,640   314,504 389,619 486,139   3.66 3.98 4.84
Rhode Island 99,408 129,697 199,709   25,666 33,609 43,623   3.87 3.86 4.58
South Carolina 227,727 294,274 486,399   86,053 112,514 140,088   2.65 2.62 3.47
South Dakota 21,747 27,589 67,012   17,807 23,099 30,541   1.22 1.19 2.19
Tennessee 310,766 405,291 726,078   135,655 174,851 224,995   2.29 2.32 3.23
Texas 1,510,543 2,037,681 3,073,724   507,441 727,233 989,333   2.98 2.80 3.11
Utah 202,212 308,059 400,276   46,303 67,568 88,364   4.37 4.56 4.53
Vermont 54,839 64,762 117,442   13,892 17,782 23,056   3.95 3.64 5.09
Virginia 452,717 553,924 914,166   185,490 260,743 350,692   2.44 2.12 2.61
Washington 494,333 643,757 901,102   151,338 221,961 271,381   3.27 2.90 3.32
West Virginia 53,510 73,420 145,150   36,362 41,476 53,091   1.47 1.77 2.73
Wisconsin 481,967 661,641 998,449   134,096 175,737 216,985   3.59 3.76 4.60
Wyoming 40,470 43,094 83,449   14,567 17,331 27,246   2.78 2.49 3.06
 
Puerto Rico 69,636 74,529 100,235   42,647 61,702 82,650   1.63 1.21 1.21
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: In 2000 and 2005, academic R&D reported for all institutions; in 1995, reported for doctorate-granting institutions only. For Maryland, academic R&D excludes R&D performed by Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. GDP reported in current dollars.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
Right-click on image to save.