Research and Development Outputs

Academic Article Output per 1,000 S&E Doctorate Holders in Academia: 2005 and 2006

  • 1st quartile
    (717–603)
  • 2nd quartile
    (595–524)
  • 3rd quartile
    (505–410)
  • 4th quartile
    (399–233)

Quartiles

Academic article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2005 and 2006
 
1st quartile
(717–603)
2nd Quartile
(595–524)
3rd Quartile
(505–410)
4th Quartile
(399–233)
 
Arizona Alabama Alaska Arkansas
California Florida Colorado Hawaii
Connecticut Georgia District of Columbia Idaho
Delaware Indiana Kentucky Maine
Illinois Kansas Minnesota Montana
Iowa Louisiana Mississippi Nevada
Maryland New Jersey Rhode Island New Mexico
Massachusetts New York South Carolina North Dakota
Michigan North Carolina Tennessee Oklahoma
Missouri Ohio Utah South Dakota
Nebraska Oregon Virginia Vermont
New Hampshire Pennsylvania Washington West Virginia
Texas Wisconsin Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of
Doctorate Recipients. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Between 1997 and 2005, the number of scientific and technical articles increased by 16% and the number of S&E doctorate holders increased by nearly the same percentage, causing the value of this indicator to remain almost unchanged for the United States.
  • The publication rate for academic S&E doctorate holders in states in the top quartile of this indicator was approximately twice as high as for states in the bottom quartile.
  • States with the greatest volatility on this indicator frequently had larger changes in academic employment than in number of publications; this may indicate that academic article output is lower at the beginning and end of academic careers.
  • In 2003, the states with the highest values for this indicator were distributed across the nation.

Description

The volume of peer-reviewed articles per 1,000 academic S&E doctorate holders is an approximate measure of their contribution to scientific knowledge. Publications are only one measure of academic productivity, which includes trained personnel, patents, and other outputs. A high value on this indicator shows that the S&E faculty in a state's academic institutions are generating a high volume of publications relative to other states. Academic institutions include both 2-year and 4-year schools.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals in this set was 5,029 in 1997, 5,255 in 2001, and 5,161 in 2005. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles.

S&E doctorates include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.

Data Table

Table 8-37
Academic article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia, by state: 1997, 2001, 2005, and 2006
 
  Academic article output   S&E doctorate holders
in academia
  Academic articles/
1,000 academic
doctorate holders
State 1997 2001 2005    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2005/2006
 
United States 144,319 147,450 167,720   245,670 261,780 295,390   587 563 568
Alabama 1,910 1,899 1,996   4,640 3,050 3,510   412 623 569
Alaskaa 163 186 245   450 530 580   362 351 422
Arizona 2,257 2,199 2,459   3,050 3,340 4,080   740 658 603
Arkansasa 603 608 743   1,520 1,640 1,960   397 371 379
California 17,512 18,115 20,807   26,050 26,790 30,800   672 676 676
Colorado 2,524 2,630 2,853   4,550 5,120 5,840   555 514 489
Connecticut 2,808 2,755 3,145   4,000 4,420 4,770   702 623 659
Delawarea 499 560 638   750 840 950   665 667 672
District of Columbia 1,224 1,211 1,267   2,210 2,840 2,600   554 426 487
Florida 4,186 4,256 5,424   6,850 8,250 9,590   611 516 566
Georgia 3,255 3,576 4,190   5,780 6,450 7,750   563 554 541
Hawaiia 574 539 618   1,380 1,570 1,680   416 343 368
Idahoa 295 309 347   780 980 1,490   378 315 233
Illinois 6,893 7,007 7,776   10,620 11,090 12,040   649 632 646
Indiana 3,103 3,095 3,557   4,680 5,710 6,220   663 542 572
Iowa 2,273 2,226 2,401   3,100 3,220 3,510   733 691 684
Kansasa 1,199 1,251 1,362   2,260 2,270 2,600   531 551 524
Kentucky 1,380 1,356 1,642   3,040 3,240 3,640   454 419 451
Louisiana 1,895 1,828 2,064   3,580 3,470 3,470   529 527 595
Mainea 247 234 303   1,340 1,200 1,240   184 195 244
Maryland 4,391 4,935 5,506   6,400 6,100 7,680   686 809 717
Massachusetts 9,143 9,597 10,695   11,810 13,390 15,380   774 717 695
Michigan 4,880 5,078 5,841   7,850 8,820 9,580   622 576 610
Minnesota 2,435 2,388 2,680   4,490 5,540 5,810   542 431 461
Mississippi 629 692 843   1,940 2,000 2,020   324 346 417
Missouri 3,160 3,229 3,469   5,770 5,710 5,660   548 565 613
Montanaa 272 328 380   1,020 810 1,230   267 405 309
Nebraskaa 1,030 1,011 1,167   2,360 1,960 1,930   436 516 605
Nevadaa 370 447 532   980 1,260 1,630   378 355 326
New Hampshirea 605 614 776   1,130 1,240 1,240   535 495 626
New Jersey 3,102 3,054 3,422   5,290 5,860 6,530   586 521 524
New Mexico 808 780 840   2,450 2,910 2,990   330 268 281
New York 12,381 12,406 13,624   20,900 21,770 23,290   592 570 585
North Carolina 4,958 5,141 6,087   7,740 9,050 10,300   641 568 591
North Dakotaa 269 271 362   900 660 970   299 411 373
Ohio 5,170 5,078 5,597   9,750 9,920 10,690   530 512 524
Oklahoma 919 925 1,034   2,680 2,800 2,890   343 330 358
Oregon 1,613 1,556 1,920   2,690 3,250 3,640   600 479 527
Pennsylvania 8,194 8,362 9,588   12,150 13,590 16,250   674 615 590
Rhode Islanda 852 862 942   1,730 1,730 2,060   492 498 457
South Carolina1,210 1,351 1,528   3,230 3,030 3,730   375 446 410
South Dakotaa 140 131 165   700 640 690   200 205 239
Tennessee 2,255 2,285 2,767   4,720 4,800 5,740   478 476 482
Texas 8,755 9,040 10,626   13,760 14,270 17,240   636 633 616
Utah 1,570 1,570 1,777   3,080 3,100 3,600   510 506 494
Vermonta 380 412 423   1,140 1,050 1,060   333 392 399
Virginia 3,014 3,104 3,509   5,830 7,180 8,050   517 432 436
Washington 3,207 3,339 3,697   5,410 6,390 7,320   593 523 505
West Virginiaa 417 388 419   1,190 1,150 1,350   350 337 310
Wisconsin 3,190 3,046 3,451   5,390 5,210 6,000   592 585 575
Wyominga 200 190 216   560 570 520   357 333 415
 
Puerto Ricoa 168 186 204   640 1,070 1,250   263 174 163
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on U.S. S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location. Data on 2006 S&E doctorate holders are preliminary.

SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (717–603)
  • 2nd quartile
    (595–524)
  • 3rd quartile
    (505–410)
  • 4th quartile
    (399–233)

Quartiles

Academic article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2005 and 2006
 
1st quartile
(717–603)
2nd Quartile
(595–524)
3rd Quartile
(505–410)
4th Quartile
(399–233)
 
Arizona Alabama Alaska Arkansas
California Florida Colorado Hawaii
Connecticut Georgia District of Columbia Idaho
Delaware Indiana Kentucky Maine
Illinois Kansas Minnesota Montana
Iowa Louisiana Mississippi Nevada
Maryland New Jersey Rhode Island New Mexico
Massachusetts New York South Carolina North Dakota
Michigan North Carolina Tennessee Oklahoma
Missouri Ohio Utah South Dakota
Nebraska Oregon Virginia Vermont
New Hampshire Pennsylvania Washington West Virginia
Texas Wisconsin Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of
Doctorate Recipients. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Between 1997 and 2005, the number of scientific and technical articles increased by 16% and the number of S&E doctorate holders increased by nearly the same percentage, causing the value of this indicator to remain almost unchanged for the United States.
  • The publication rate for academic S&E doctorate holders in states in the top quartile of this indicator was approximately twice as high as for states in the bottom quartile.
  • States with the greatest volatility on this indicator frequently had larger changes in academic employment than in number of publications; this may indicate that academic article output is lower at the beginning and end of academic careers.
  • In 2003, the states with the highest values for this indicator were distributed across the nation.

Description

The volume of peer-reviewed articles per 1,000 academic S&E doctorate holders is an approximate measure of their contribution to scientific knowledge. Publications are only one measure of academic productivity, which includes trained personnel, patents, and other outputs. A high value on this indicator shows that the S&E faculty in a state's academic institutions are generating a high volume of publications relative to other states. Academic institutions include both 2-year and 4-year schools.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals in this set was 5,029 in 1997, 5,255 in 2001, and 5,161 in 2005. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles.

S&E doctorates include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.

Data Table

Table 8-37
Academic article output per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia, by state: 1997, 2001, 2005, and 2006
 
  Academic article output   S&E doctorate holders
in academia
  Academic articles/
1,000 academic
doctorate holders
State 1997 2001 2005    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2005/2006
 
United States 144,319 147,450 167,720   245,670 261,780 295,390   587 563 568
Alabama 1,910 1,899 1,996   4,640 3,050 3,510   412 623 569
Alaskaa 163 186 245   450 530 580   362 351 422
Arizona 2,257 2,199 2,459   3,050 3,340 4,080   740 658 603
Arkansasa 603 608 743   1,520 1,640 1,960   397 371 379
California 17,512 18,115 20,807   26,050 26,790 30,800   672 676 676
Colorado 2,524 2,630 2,853   4,550 5,120 5,840   555 514 489
Connecticut 2,808 2,755 3,145   4,000 4,420 4,770   702 623 659
Delawarea 499 560 638   750 840 950   665 667 672
District of Columbia 1,224 1,211 1,267   2,210 2,840 2,600   554 426 487
Florida 4,186 4,256 5,424   6,850 8,250 9,590   611 516 566
Georgia 3,255 3,576 4,190   5,780 6,450 7,750   563 554 541
Hawaiia 574 539 618   1,380 1,570 1,680   416 343 368
Idahoa 295 309 347   780 980 1,490   378 315 233
Illinois 6,893 7,007 7,776   10,620 11,090 12,040   649 632 646
Indiana 3,103 3,095 3,557   4,680 5,710 6,220   663 542 572
Iowa 2,273 2,226 2,401   3,100 3,220 3,510   733 691 684
Kansasa 1,199 1,251 1,362   2,260 2,270 2,600   531 551 524
Kentucky 1,380 1,356 1,642   3,040 3,240 3,640   454 419 451
Louisiana 1,895 1,828 2,064   3,580 3,470 3,470   529 527 595
Mainea 247 234 303   1,340 1,200 1,240   184 195 244
Maryland 4,391 4,935 5,506   6,400 6,100 7,680   686 809 717
Massachusetts 9,143 9,597 10,695   11,810 13,390 15,380   774 717 695
Michigan 4,880 5,078 5,841   7,850 8,820 9,580   622 576 610
Minnesota 2,435 2,388 2,680   4,490 5,540 5,810   542 431 461
Mississippi 629 692 843   1,940 2,000 2,020   324 346 417
Missouri 3,160 3,229 3,469   5,770 5,710 5,660   548 565 613
Montanaa 272 328 380   1,020 810 1,230   267 405 309
Nebraskaa 1,030 1,011 1,167   2,360 1,960 1,930   436 516 605
Nevadaa 370 447 532   980 1,260 1,630   378 355 326
New Hampshirea 605 614 776   1,130 1,240 1,240   535 495 626
New Jersey 3,102 3,054 3,422   5,290 5,860 6,530   586 521 524
New Mexico 808 780 840   2,450 2,910 2,990   330 268 281
New York 12,381 12,406 13,624   20,900 21,770 23,290   592 570 585
North Carolina 4,958 5,141 6,087   7,740 9,050 10,300   641 568 591
North Dakotaa 269 271 362   900 660 970   299 411 373
Ohio 5,170 5,078 5,597   9,750 9,920 10,690   530 512 524
Oklahoma 919 925 1,034   2,680 2,800 2,890   343 330 358
Oregon 1,613 1,556 1,920   2,690 3,250 3,640   600 479 527
Pennsylvania 8,194 8,362 9,588   12,150 13,590 16,250   674 615 590
Rhode Islanda 852 862 942   1,730 1,730 2,060   492 498 457
South Carolina1,210 1,351 1,528   3,230 3,030 3,730   375 446 410
South Dakotaa 140 131 165   700 640 690   200 205 239
Tennessee 2,255 2,285 2,767   4,720 4,800 5,740   478 476 482
Texas 8,755 9,040 10,626   13,760 14,270 17,240   636 633 616
Utah 1,570 1,570 1,777   3,080 3,100 3,600   510 506 494
Vermonta 380 412 423   1,140 1,050 1,060   333 392 399
Virginia 3,014 3,104 3,509   5,830 7,180 8,050   517 432 436
Washington 3,207 3,339 3,697   5,410 6,390 7,320   593 523 505
West Virginiaa 417 388 419   1,190 1,150 1,350   350 337 310
Wisconsin 3,190 3,046 3,451   5,390 5,210 6,000   592 585 575
Wyominga 200 190 216   560 570 520   357 333 415
 
Puerto Ricoa 168 186 204   640 1,070 1,250   263 174 163
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on U.S. S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location. Data on 2006 S&E doctorate holders are preliminary.

SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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