Research and Development Outputs

Academic Article Output per $1 Million of Academic R&D: 2005

  • 1st quartile
    (5.50–4.01)
  • 2nd quartile
    (3.95–3.58)
  • 3rd quartile
    (3.56–3.14)
  • 4th quartile
    (2.99–1.59)

Quartiles

Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2005
 
1st quartile
(5.50–4.01)
2nd Quartile
(3.95–3.58)
3rd Quartile
(3.56–3.14)
4th Quartile
(2.99–1.59)
 
Connecticut Florida Alabama Alaska
Delaware Kansas Arizona Hawaii
District of Columbia Kentucky Arkansas Idaho
Illinois Maine California Mississippi
Indiana Missouri Colorado Montana
Iowa New Jersey Georgia Nevada
Massachusetts New York Louisiana New Hampshire
Michigan North Carolina Maryland New Mexico
Minnesota Ohio Nebraska North Dakota
Pennsylvania Oregon Oklahoma South Dakota
Rhode Island Tennessee South Carolina West Virginia
Utah Vermont Texas Wyoming
Washington Virginia Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • From 1995 to 2005, the number of academic publications rose from 146,000 to nearly 168,000, an increase of 15%.
  • In 2005, academic researchers produced an average of 3.7 publications per $1 million of academic R&D, compared with 6.7 in 1995. This partly reflects the effect of general price inflation (28% during this time period), but may also indicate rising academic research costs.
  • The value for this indicator decreased for all states between 1995 and 2005.

Description

This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic publications and the expenditure for academic R&D. A high value for this indicator means that a state's academic institutions have a high publications output relative to their R&D spending. Academic institutions include both 2-year and 4-year schools. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions. It may reflect variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals in this set was 4,601 in 1993, 5,084 in 1998, and 5,161 in 2005. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles. In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at the Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 workers and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research.

Data Table

Table 8-38
Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Academic article output   Academic R&D ($millions)   Academic articles/
$1 million academic R&D
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 146,122 143,922 167,720   21,650 29,551 44,944   6.75 4.87 3.73
Alabama 1,925 1,772 1,996   337 428 590   5.71 4.14 3.38
Alaska 165 174 245   72 108 154   2.29 1.61 1.59
Arizona 2,318 2,179 2,459   380 466 720   6.10 4.68 3.42
Arkansas 518 572 743   94 132 210   5.51 4.33 3.54
California 18,004 17,634 20,807   2,667 4,065 6,273   6.75 4.34 3.32
Colorado 2,568 2,504 2,853   399 545 826   6.44 4.59 3.45
Connecticut 2,811 2,788 3,145   381 468 669   7.38 5.96 4.70
Delaware 515 520 638   54 78 116   9.54 6.67 5.50
District of Columbia 1,233 1,244 1,267   188 246 303   6.56 5.06 4.18
Florida 4,154 4,247 5,424   609 852 1,449   6.82 4.98 3.74
Georgia 2,959 3,294 4,190   684 927 1,274   4.33 3.55 3.29
Hawaii 615 557 618   78 161 240   7.88 3.46 2.58
Idaho 257 277 347   62 74 120   4.15 3.74 2.89
Illinois 6,979 6,910 7,776   832 1,171 1,771   8.39 5.90 4.39
Indiana 3,182 3,069 3,557   377 509 759   8.44 6.03 4.69
Iowa 2,352 2,198 2,401   324 418 548   7.26 5.26 4.38
Kansas 1,226 1,286 1,362   182 258 349   6.74 4.98 3.90
Kentucky 1,280 1,337 1,642   155 277 452   8.26 4.83 3.63
Louisiana 1,946 1,787 2,064   330 409 580   5.90 4.37 3.56
Maine 258 272 303   34 58 82   7.59 4.69 3.70
Maryland 4,431 4,598 5,506   762 1,071 1,679   5.81 4.29 3.28
Massachusetts 9,128 9,347 10,695   1,165 1,486 2,079   7.84 6.29 5.14
Michigan 4,965 4,885 5,841   779 1,008 1,456   6.37 4.85 4.01
Minnesota 2,574 2,259 2,680   342 418 560   7.53 5.40 4.79
Mississippi 621 653 843   118 217 353   5.26 3.01 2.39
Missouri 3,368 3,052 3,469   404 614 893   8.34 4.97 3.88
Montana 256 313 380   70 99 171   3.66 3.16 2.22
Nebraska 1,091 979 1,167   159 208 360   6.86 4.71 3.24
Nevada 390 443 532   87 106 178   4.48 4.18 2.99
New Hampshire 596 592 776   93 151 287   6.41 3.92 2.70
New Jersey 2,919 2,993 3,422   442 568 867   6.60 5.27 3.95
New Mexico 766 802 840   232 244 346   3.30 3.29 2.43
New York 12,818 12,146 13,624   1,780 2,292 3,604   7.20 5.30 3.78
North Carolina 5,189 5,073 6,087   720 1,040 1,652   7.21 4.88 3.68
North Dakota 263 242 362   60 67 150   4.38 3.61 2.41
Ohio 5,156 5,064 5,597   646 918 1,531   7.98 5.52 3.66
Oklahoma 949 906 1,034   190 252 292   4.99 3.60 3.54
Oregon 1,648 1,665 1,920   260 346 536   6.34 4.81 3.58
Pennsylvania 8,244 8,037 9,588   1,151 1,552 2,354   7.16 5.18 4.07
Rhode Island 858 853 942   99 130 200   8.67 6.56 4.71
South Carolina 1,179 1,285 1,528   228 294 486   5.17 4.37 3.14
South Dakota 128 135 165   22 28 67   5.82 4.82 2.46
Tennessee 2,296 2,278 2,767   311 405 726   7.38 5.62 3.81
Texas 8,997 8,795 10,626   1,511 2,038 3,074   5.95 4.32 3.46
Utah 1,539 1,559 1,777   202 308 400   7.62 5.06 4.44
Vermont 403 405 423   55 65 117   7.33 6.23 3.62
Virginia 3,007 3,075 3,509   453 554 914   6.64 5.55 3.84
Washington 3,189 3,288 3,697   494 644 901   6.46 5.11 4.10
West Virginia 419 376 419   54 73 145   7.76 5.15 2.89
Wisconsin 3,278 3,025 3,451   482 662 998   6.80 4.57 3.46
Wyoming 192 178 216   40 43 83   4.80 4.14 2.60
 
Puerto Rico 171 192 204   70 75 100   2.44 2.56 2.04
 

NOTES: In 2000 and 2005, academic R&D reported for all institutions. In 1995, academic R&D reported for doctorate-granting institutions only.

SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (5.50–4.01)
  • 2nd quartile
    (3.95–3.58)
  • 3rd quartile
    (3.56–3.14)
  • 4th quartile
    (2.99–1.59)

Quartiles

Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D: 2005
 
1st quartile
(5.50–4.01)
2nd Quartile
(3.95–3.58)
3rd Quartile
(3.56–3.14)
4th Quartile
(2.99–1.59)
 
Connecticut Florida Alabama Alaska
Delaware Kansas Arizona Hawaii
District of Columbia Kentucky Arkansas Idaho
Illinois Maine California Mississippi
Indiana Missouri Colorado Montana
Iowa New Jersey Georgia Nevada
Massachusetts New York Louisiana New Hampshire
Michigan North Carolina Maryland New Mexico
Minnesota Ohio Nebraska North Dakota
Pennsylvania Oregon Oklahoma South Dakota
Rhode Island Tennessee South Carolina West Virginia
Utah Vermont Texas Wyoming
Washington Virginia Wisconsin  
 
SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years). See Data Table.

Findings

  • From 1995 to 2005, the number of academic publications rose from 146,000 to nearly 168,000, an increase of 15%.
  • In 2005, academic researchers produced an average of 3.7 publications per $1 million of academic R&D, compared with 6.7 in 1995. This partly reflects the effect of general price inflation (28% during this time period), but may also indicate rising academic research costs.
  • The value for this indicator decreased for all states between 1995 and 2005.

Description

This indicator shows the relationship between the number of academic publications and the expenditure for academic R&D. A high value for this indicator means that a state's academic institutions have a high publications output relative to their R&D spending. Academic institutions include both 2-year and 4-year schools. This indicator is not an efficiency measure; it is affected by the highly variable costs of R&D and by publishing conventions in different fields and institutions. It may reflect variations in field emphasis among states and institutions.

Publication counts are based on the number of articles appearing in a set of journals listed in Thomson ISI's Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index. The number of journals in this set was 4,601 in 1993, 5,084 in 1998, and 5,161 in 2005. Articles with authors in different institutions were counted fractionally. For a publication with N authors, each author's institution was credited with 1/N articles. In this indicator, Maryland data exclude expenditures by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at the Johns Hopkins University. APL employs more than 3,000 workers and supports the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other government agencies rather than focusing on academic research.

Data Table

Table 8-38
Academic article output per $1 million of academic R&D, by state: 1995, 2000, and 2005
 
  Academic article output   Academic R&D ($millions)   Academic articles/
$1 million academic R&D
State 1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005    1995 2000 2005
 
United States 146,122 143,922 167,720   21,650 29,551 44,944   6.75 4.87 3.73
Alabama 1,925 1,772 1,996   337 428 590   5.71 4.14 3.38
Alaska 165 174 245   72 108 154   2.29 1.61 1.59
Arizona 2,318 2,179 2,459   380 466 720   6.10 4.68 3.42
Arkansas 518 572 743   94 132 210   5.51 4.33 3.54
California 18,004 17,634 20,807   2,667 4,065 6,273   6.75 4.34 3.32
Colorado 2,568 2,504 2,853   399 545 826   6.44 4.59 3.45
Connecticut 2,811 2,788 3,145   381 468 669   7.38 5.96 4.70
Delaware 515 520 638   54 78 116   9.54 6.67 5.50
District of Columbia 1,233 1,244 1,267   188 246 303   6.56 5.06 4.18
Florida 4,154 4,247 5,424   609 852 1,449   6.82 4.98 3.74
Georgia 2,959 3,294 4,190   684 927 1,274   4.33 3.55 3.29
Hawaii 615 557 618   78 161 240   7.88 3.46 2.58
Idaho 257 277 347   62 74 120   4.15 3.74 2.89
Illinois 6,979 6,910 7,776   832 1,171 1,771   8.39 5.90 4.39
Indiana 3,182 3,069 3,557   377 509 759   8.44 6.03 4.69
Iowa 2,352 2,198 2,401   324 418 548   7.26 5.26 4.38
Kansas 1,226 1,286 1,362   182 258 349   6.74 4.98 3.90
Kentucky 1,280 1,337 1,642   155 277 452   8.26 4.83 3.63
Louisiana 1,946 1,787 2,064   330 409 580   5.90 4.37 3.56
Maine 258 272 303   34 58 82   7.59 4.69 3.70
Maryland 4,431 4,598 5,506   762 1,071 1,679   5.81 4.29 3.28
Massachusetts 9,128 9,347 10,695   1,165 1,486 2,079   7.84 6.29 5.14
Michigan 4,965 4,885 5,841   779 1,008 1,456   6.37 4.85 4.01
Minnesota 2,574 2,259 2,680   342 418 560   7.53 5.40 4.79
Mississippi 621 653 843   118 217 353   5.26 3.01 2.39
Missouri 3,368 3,052 3,469   404 614 893   8.34 4.97 3.88
Montana 256 313 380   70 99 171   3.66 3.16 2.22
Nebraska 1,091 979 1,167   159 208 360   6.86 4.71 3.24
Nevada 390 443 532   87 106 178   4.48 4.18 2.99
New Hampshire 596 592 776   93 151 287   6.41 3.92 2.70
New Jersey 2,919 2,993 3,422   442 568 867   6.60 5.27 3.95
New Mexico 766 802 840   232 244 346   3.30 3.29 2.43
New York 12,818 12,146 13,624   1,780 2,292 3,604   7.20 5.30 3.78
North Carolina 5,189 5,073 6,087   720 1,040 1,652   7.21 4.88 3.68
North Dakota 263 242 362   60 67 150   4.38 3.61 2.41
Ohio 5,156 5,064 5,597   646 918 1,531   7.98 5.52 3.66
Oklahoma 949 906 1,034   190 252 292   4.99 3.60 3.54
Oregon 1,648 1,665 1,920   260 346 536   6.34 4.81 3.58
Pennsylvania 8,244 8,037 9,588   1,151 1,552 2,354   7.16 5.18 4.07
Rhode Island 858 853 942   99 130 200   8.67 6.56 4.71
South Carolina 1,179 1,285 1,528   228 294 486   5.17 4.37 3.14
South Dakota 128 135 165   22 28 67   5.82 4.82 2.46
Tennessee 2,296 2,278 2,767   311 405 726   7.38 5.62 3.81
Texas 8,997 8,795 10,626   1,511 2,038 3,074   5.95 4.32 3.46
Utah 1,539 1,559 1,777   202 308 400   7.62 5.06 4.44
Vermont 403 405 423   55 65 117   7.33 6.23 3.62
Virginia 3,007 3,075 3,509   453 554 914   6.64 5.55 3.84
Washington 3,189 3,288 3,697   494 644 901   6.46 5.11 4.10
West Virginia 419 376 419   54 73 145   7.76 5.15 2.89
Wisconsin 3,278 3,025 3,451   482 662 998   6.80 4.57 3.46
Wyoming 192 178 216   40 43 83   4.80 4.14 2.60
 
Puerto Rico 171 192 204   70 75 100   2.44 2.56 2.04
 

NOTES: In 2000 and 2005, academic R&D reported for all institutions. In 1995, academic R&D reported for doctorate-granting institutions only.

SOURCES: Thomson Scientific ISI database; ipIQ, Inc.; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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