Research and Development Outputs

Academic Patents Awarded per 1,000 S&E Doctorate Holders in Academia: 2005 and 2006

  • 1st quartile
    (20.2–8.9)
  • 2nd quartile
    (8.8–6.3)
  • 3rd quartile
    (5.5–4.1)
  • 4th quartile
    (3.8–0.0)

Quartiles

Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2005 and 2006
 
1st quartile
(20.2–8.9)
2nd Quartile
(8.8–6.3)
3rd Quartile
(5.5–4.1)
4th Quartile
(3.8–0.0)
 
Arkansas Alabama Arizona Alaska
California Connecticut Louisiana Colorado
Florida Delaware Missouri District of Columbia
Maryland Georgia Montana Hawaii
Massachusetts Illinois New Mexico Idaho
Michigan Indiana Oklahoma Kansas
Minnesota Iowa Oregon Maine
Mississippi Kentucky Rhode Island Nevada
New Jersey Nebraska South Carolina North Dakota
North Carolina New Hampshire Tennessee South Dakota
Texas New York Virginia Vermont
Wisconsin Ohio Washington West Virginia
Wyoming Pennsylvania    
  Utah    
 
SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities—Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969–2005; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Throughout the United States, the number of patents awarded to academic institutions increased from more than 2,400 in 1997 to more than 2,700 in 2005, an increase of 11%, while the number of academic S&E doctorate holders rose by 20% between 1997 and 2006.
  • In 2005, 9.2 academic patents were produced nationally for each 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, slightly lower than the 10.0 patents produced in 1997.
  • In 2003, states varied widely on this indicator, with values ranging from 0 to 20.2 patents per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, indicating a difference in patenting philosophy or mix of industries that these academic institutions deal with.
  • California and Massachusetts showed both the highest levels of academic patenting activity and the highest levels of venture capital investment.

Description

Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the results of academic R&D in terms of their role in creating new products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is volume of academic patents. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.

This indicator relates the number of academic-owned utility patents to the size of the doctoral S&E workforce in academia. Academia includes both 2-year and 4-year institutions. Utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions, include any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound, and represent a key measure of intellectual property. This indicator is an approximate measure of the degree to which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic workforce.

S&E doctorates include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.

Data Table

Table 8-39
Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia, by state: 1997, 2001, 2005, and 2006
 
  Patents awarded
to academic institutions
  S&E doctorate
holders in academia
  Academic patents/
1,000 academic
S&E doctorate holders
State 1997 2001 2005    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2005/2006
 
United States 2,447 3,219 2,725   245,670 261,780 295,390   10.0 12.3 9.2
Alabama 23 40 28   4,640 3,050 3,510   5.0 13.1 8.0
Alaskaa 2 0 0   450 530 580   4.4 0.0 0.0
Arizona 21 17 22   3,050 3,340 4,080   6.9 5.1 5.4
Arkansasa 8 28 19   1,520 1,640 1,960   5.3 17.1 9.7
California 409 638 622   26,050 26,790 30,800   15.7 23.8 20.2
Colorado 32 31 14   4,550 5,120 5,840   7.0 6.1 2.4
Connecticut 34 37 41   4,000 4,420 4,770   8.5 8.4 8.6
Delawarea 4 5 7   750 840 950   5.3 6.0 7.4
District of Columbia 28 13 7   2,210 2,840 2,600   12.7 4.6 2.7
Florida 94 103 128   6,850 8,250 9,590   13.7 12.5 13.3
Georgia 45 75 68   5,780 6,450 7,750   7.8 11.6 8.8
Hawaiia 6 4 6   1,380 1,570 1,680   4.3 2.5 3.6
Idahoa 0 0 0   780 980 1,490   0.0 0.0 0.0
Illinois 81 109 84   10,620 11,090 12,040   7.6 9.8 7.0
Indiana 39 17 39   4,680 5,710 6,220   8.3 3.0 6.3
Iowa 51 67 29   3,100 3,220 3,510   16.5 20.8 8.3
Kansasa 7 18 6   2,260 2,270 2,600   3.1 7.9 2.3
Kentucky 16 20 23   3,040 3,240 3,640   5.3 6.2 6.3
Louisiana 26 42 18   3,580 3,470 3,470   7.3 12.1 5.2
Mainea 0 2 1   1,340 1,200 1,240   0.0 1.7 0.8
Maryland 66 114 98   6,400 6,100 7,680   10.3 18.7 12.8
Massachusetts 188 218 213   11,810 13,390 15,380   15.9 16.3 13.8
Michigan 104 105 110   7,850 8,820 9,580   13.2 11.9 11.5
Minnesota 50 65 63   4,490 5,540 5,810   11.1 11.7 10.8
Mississippi 6 12 18   1,940 2,000 2,020   3.1 6.0 8.9
Missouri 40 55 28   5,770 5,710 5,660   6.9 9.6 4.9
Montanaa 4 4 5   1,020 810 1,230   3.9 4.9 4.1
Nebraskaa 27 21 14   2,360 1,960 1,930   11.4 10.7 7.3
Nevadaa 2 4 2   980 1,260 1,630   2.0 3.2 1.2
New Hampshirea 3 10 10   1,130 1,240 1,240   2.7 8.1 8.1
New Jersey 52 81 58   5,290 5,860 6,530   9.8 13.8 8.9
New Mexico 19 17 16   2,450 2,910 2,990   7.8 5.8 5.4
New York 224 283 201   20,900 21,770 23,290   10.7 13.0 8.6
North Carolina 96 148 106   7,740 9,050 10,300   12.4 16.4 10.3
North Dakotaa 5 4 3   900 660 970   5.6 6.1 3.1
Ohio 75 93 72   9,750 9,920 10,690   7.7 9.4 6.7
Oklahoma 17 22 14   2,680 2,800 2,890   6.3 7.9 4.8
Oregon 27 23 16   2,690 3,250 3,640   10.0 7.1 4.4
Pennsylvania 138 213 117   12,150 13,590 16,250   11.4 15.7 7.2
Rhode Islanda 9 19 11   1,730 1,730 2,060   5.2 11.0 5.3
South Carolina 14 14 18   3,230 3,030 3,730   4.3 4.6 4.8
South Dakotaa 2 2 0   700 640 690   2.9 3.1 0.0
Tennessee 25 42 24   4,720 4,800 5,740   5.3 8.8 4.2
Texas 125 155 157   13,760 14,270 17,240   9.1 10.9 9.1
Utah 38 48 26   3,080 3,100 3,600   12.3 15.5 7.2
Vermonta 3 3 4   1,140 1,050 1,060   2.6 2.9 3.8
Virginia 49 41 37   5,830 7,180 8,050   8.4 5.7 4.6
Washington 42 56 40   5,410 6,390 7,320   7.8 8.8 5.5
West Virginiaa 2 4 0   1,190 1,150 1,350   1.7 3.5 0.0
Wisconsin 65 74 77   5,390 5,210 6,000   12.1 14.2 12.8
Wyominga 4 3 5   560 570 520   7.1 5.3 9.6
                       
Puerto Ricoa 0 5 0   640 1,070 1,250   0.0 4.7 0.0
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on U.S. S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location. Data on 2006 S&E doctorate holders in academia are preliminary.

SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities—Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969–2005; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (20.2–8.9)
  • 2nd quartile
    (8.8–6.3)
  • 3rd quartile
    (5.5–4.1)
  • 4th quartile
    (3.8–0.0)

Quartiles

Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia: 2005 and 2006
 
1st quartile
(20.2–8.9)
2nd Quartile
(8.8–6.3)
3rd Quartile
(5.5–4.1)
4th Quartile
(3.8–0.0)
 
Arkansas Alabama Arizona Alaska
California Connecticut Louisiana Colorado
Florida Delaware Missouri District of Columbia
Maryland Georgia Montana Hawaii
Massachusetts Illinois New Mexico Idaho
Michigan Indiana Oklahoma Kansas
Minnesota Iowa Oregon Maine
Mississippi Kentucky Rhode Island Nevada
New Jersey Nebraska South Carolina North Dakota
North Carolina New Hampshire Tennessee South Dakota
Texas New York Virginia Vermont
Wisconsin Ohio Washington West Virginia
Wyoming Pennsylvania    
  Utah    
 
SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities—Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969–2005; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Throughout the United States, the number of patents awarded to academic institutions increased from more than 2,400 in 1997 to more than 2,700 in 2005, an increase of 11%, while the number of academic S&E doctorate holders rose by 20% between 1997 and 2006.
  • In 2005, 9.2 academic patents were produced nationally for each 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, slightly lower than the 10.0 patents produced in 1997.
  • In 2003, states varied widely on this indicator, with values ranging from 0 to 20.2 patents per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders employed in academia, indicating a difference in patenting philosophy or mix of industries that these academic institutions deal with.
  • California and Massachusetts showed both the highest levels of academic patenting activity and the highest levels of venture capital investment.

Description

Since the early 1980s, academic institutions have increasingly been viewed as engines of economic growth. Growing attention has been paid to the results of academic R&D in terms of their role in creating new products, processes, and services. One indicator of such R&D results is volume of academic patents. Academic patenting is highly concentrated and partly reflects the resources devoted to institutional patenting offices.

This indicator relates the number of academic-owned utility patents to the size of the doctoral S&E workforce in academia. Academia includes both 2-year and 4-year institutions. Utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions, include any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound, and represent a key measure of intellectual property. This indicator is an approximate measure of the degree to which results with perceived economic value are generated by the doctoral academic workforce.

S&E doctorates include physical, life, earth, ocean, atmospheric, computer, and social sciences; mathematics; engineering; and psychology. Medical doctorates and S&E doctorates from foreign institutions are excluded.

Data Table

Table 8-39
Academic patents awarded per 1,000 S&E doctorate holders in academia, by state: 1997, 2001, 2005, and 2006
 
  Patents awarded
to academic institutions
  S&E doctorate
holders in academia
  Academic patents/
1,000 academic
S&E doctorate holders
State 1997 2001 2005    1997 2001 2006    1997 2001 2005/2006
 
United States 2,447 3,219 2,725   245,670 261,780 295,390   10.0 12.3 9.2
Alabama 23 40 28   4,640 3,050 3,510   5.0 13.1 8.0
Alaskaa 2 0 0   450 530 580   4.4 0.0 0.0
Arizona 21 17 22   3,050 3,340 4,080   6.9 5.1 5.4
Arkansasa 8 28 19   1,520 1,640 1,960   5.3 17.1 9.7
California 409 638 622   26,050 26,790 30,800   15.7 23.8 20.2
Colorado 32 31 14   4,550 5,120 5,840   7.0 6.1 2.4
Connecticut 34 37 41   4,000 4,420 4,770   8.5 8.4 8.6
Delawarea 4 5 7   750 840 950   5.3 6.0 7.4
District of Columbia 28 13 7   2,210 2,840 2,600   12.7 4.6 2.7
Florida 94 103 128   6,850 8,250 9,590   13.7 12.5 13.3
Georgia 45 75 68   5,780 6,450 7,750   7.8 11.6 8.8
Hawaiia 6 4 6   1,380 1,570 1,680   4.3 2.5 3.6
Idahoa 0 0 0   780 980 1,490   0.0 0.0 0.0
Illinois 81 109 84   10,620 11,090 12,040   7.6 9.8 7.0
Indiana 39 17 39   4,680 5,710 6,220   8.3 3.0 6.3
Iowa 51 67 29   3,100 3,220 3,510   16.5 20.8 8.3
Kansasa 7 18 6   2,260 2,270 2,600   3.1 7.9 2.3
Kentucky 16 20 23   3,040 3,240 3,640   5.3 6.2 6.3
Louisiana 26 42 18   3,580 3,470 3,470   7.3 12.1 5.2
Mainea 0 2 1   1,340 1,200 1,240   0.0 1.7 0.8
Maryland 66 114 98   6,400 6,100 7,680   10.3 18.7 12.8
Massachusetts 188 218 213   11,810 13,390 15,380   15.9 16.3 13.8
Michigan 104 105 110   7,850 8,820 9,580   13.2 11.9 11.5
Minnesota 50 65 63   4,490 5,540 5,810   11.1 11.7 10.8
Mississippi 6 12 18   1,940 2,000 2,020   3.1 6.0 8.9
Missouri 40 55 28   5,770 5,710 5,660   6.9 9.6 4.9
Montanaa 4 4 5   1,020 810 1,230   3.9 4.9 4.1
Nebraskaa 27 21 14   2,360 1,960 1,930   11.4 10.7 7.3
Nevadaa 2 4 2   980 1,260 1,630   2.0 3.2 1.2
New Hampshirea 3 10 10   1,130 1,240 1,240   2.7 8.1 8.1
New Jersey 52 81 58   5,290 5,860 6,530   9.8 13.8 8.9
New Mexico 19 17 16   2,450 2,910 2,990   7.8 5.8 5.4
New York 224 283 201   20,900 21,770 23,290   10.7 13.0 8.6
North Carolina 96 148 106   7,740 9,050 10,300   12.4 16.4 10.3
North Dakotaa 5 4 3   900 660 970   5.6 6.1 3.1
Ohio 75 93 72   9,750 9,920 10,690   7.7 9.4 6.7
Oklahoma 17 22 14   2,680 2,800 2,890   6.3 7.9 4.8
Oregon 27 23 16   2,690 3,250 3,640   10.0 7.1 4.4
Pennsylvania 138 213 117   12,150 13,590 16,250   11.4 15.7 7.2
Rhode Islanda 9 19 11   1,730 1,730 2,060   5.2 11.0 5.3
South Carolina 14 14 18   3,230 3,030 3,730   4.3 4.6 4.8
South Dakotaa 2 2 0   700 640 690   2.9 3.1 0.0
Tennessee 25 42 24   4,720 4,800 5,740   5.3 8.8 4.2
Texas 125 155 157   13,760 14,270 17,240   9.1 10.9 9.1
Utah 38 48 26   3,080 3,100 3,600   12.3 15.5 7.2
Vermonta 3 3 4   1,140 1,050 1,060   2.6 2.9 3.8
Virginia 49 41 37   5,830 7,180 8,050   8.4 5.7 4.6
Washington 42 56 40   5,410 6,390 7,320   7.8 8.8 5.5
West Virginiaa 2 4 0   1,190 1,150 1,350   1.7 3.5 0.0
Wisconsin 65 74 77   5,390 5,210 6,000   12.1 14.2 12.8
Wyominga 4 3 5   560 570 520   7.1 5.3 9.6
                       
Puerto Ricoa 0 5 0   640 1,070 1,250   0.0 4.7 0.0
 

aEstimates for S&E doctorate holders may vary between 10% and 25% because geography is not part of the sample design.

NOTES: Data on U.S. S&E doctorate holders classified by employer location. Data on 2006 S&E doctorate holders in academia are preliminary.

SOURCES: Patent and Trademark Office, Technology Assessment and Forecast Branch, U.S. Colleges and Universities—Utility Patent Grants, Calendar Years 1969–2005; and National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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