Research and Development Outputs

Patents Awarded per 1,000 Individuals in S&E Occupations: 2006

  • 1st quartile
    (34.2–17.4)
  • 2nd quartile
    (16.6–11.2)
  • 3rd quartile
    (10.9–7.3)
  • 4th quartile
    (7.1–1.0)
  • No data

Quartiles

Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 2006
 
1st quartile
(34.2–17.4)
2nd Quartile
(16.6–11.2)
3rd Quartile
(10.9–7.3)
4th Quartile
(7.1–1.0)
No Data
 
Arizona Colorado Florida Alabama Idaho
California Delaware Georgia Alaska  
Connecticut Illinois Kansas Arkansas  
Massachusetts Indiana Kentucky District of Columbia  
Michigan Iowa Louisiana Hawaii  
Minnesota Nevada Maine Mississippi  
New Hampshire New Mexico Maryland Nebraska  
New Jersey North Carolina Missouri North Dakota  
New York Ohio Montana Virginia  
Oregon Pennsylvania Oklahoma West Virginia  
Vermont Rhode Island South Carolina Wyoming  
Washington Texas South Dakota    
Wisconsin Utah Tennessee    
 
SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Electronic Information Products Division/Patent Technology Monitoring Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents, January 1, 1963–December 31, 2006; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Nearly 90,000 utility patents were awarded to inventors residing in the United States in 2006, an increase of almost 7% from the 84,000 utility patents awarded in 2004.
  • In 2006, the national average for this indicator was 16.7 patents per 1,000 individuals in an S&E occupation, which was slightly higher than the average of 16.6 in 2004.
  • The state of Idaho typically reports the highest values for this indicator, reflecting the presence of a high-patenting Department of Energy National Laboratory in this sparsely populated state. In 2006, this may not be evident because the Idaho data for individuals in S&E occupations were suppressed.
  • Values for the remaining states varied widely, ranging from 3.4 to 34.2 patents per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations in 2006.
  • Nearly 25% of all 2006 U.S. utility patents were awarded to residents of California.

Description

This indicator shows state patent activity normalized to the size of its S&E workforce, specifically employees in S&E occupations. People in S&E occupations include mathematical, computer, life, physical, and social scientists; engineers; and postsecondary teachers in any of these fields. Managers, technicians, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel are excluded.

Although the Patent and Trademark Office grants several types of patents, this indicator includes only utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions. Utility patents can be granted for any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound, and represent a key measure of intellectual property. The Patent and Trademark Office classifies patents based on the residence of the first-named inventor. Only U.S.-origin patents are included.

The location of S&E occupations primarily reflects where the individuals work and is based on estimates from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, a cooperative program between the Bureau of Labor Statistics and state employment security agencies. Because of the different methods of assigning geographic location, this indicator is of limited applicability for sparsely populated states or for locations where a large percentage of the population lives in one state or region and works in another.

Data Table

Table 8-40
Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations, by state: 2004 and 2006
 
  Patents awarded   Individuals in
S&E occupations
  Patents/1,000 individuals in
S&E occupations
State 2004 2006    2004 2006    2004 2006
 
United States 84,249 89,795   5,065,330 5,383,860   16.6 16.7
Alabama 375 357   57,560 66,100   6.5 5.4
Alaska 39 36   10,660 10,720   3.7 3.4
Arizona 1,621 1,705   95,380 98,110   17.0 17.4
Arkansas 132 138   22,150 24,860   6.0 5.6
California 19,488 22,275   693,670 730,010   28.1 30.5
Colorado 2,099 2,118   126,280 133,730   16.6 15.8
Connecticut 1,577 1,652   82,820 79,380   19.0 20.8
Delaware 342 357   17,980 21,550   19.0 16.6
District of Columbia 75 63   57,750 64,120   1.3 1.0
Florida 2,456 2,600   229,950 246,190   10.7 10.6
Georgia 1,326 1,487   141,710 136,470   9.4 10.9
Hawaii 76 84   16,360 18,940   4.6 4.4
Idaho 1,785 1,663   22,310 NA   80.0 NA
Illinois 3,162 3,294   219,530 222,470   14.4 14.8
Indiana 1,280 1,165   79,120 80,110   16.2 14.5
Iowa 658 666   39,280 43,670   16.8 15.3
Kansas 448 492   52,020 48,620   8.6 10.1
Kentucky 407 413   44,350 44,680   9.2 9.2
Louisiana 343 321   42,230 40,180   8.1 8.0
Maine 134 142   15,160 15,950   8.8 8.9
Maryland 1,313 1,410   154,310 159,470   8.5 8.8
Massachusetts 3,672 4,011   186,260 198,670   19.7 20.2
Michigan 3,756 3,758   183,140 208,520   20.5 18.0
Minnesota 2,754 2,957   119,380 125,930   23.1 23.5
Mississippi 136 119   23,190 24,910   5.9 4.8
Missouri 768 721   87,200 96,420   8.8 7.5
Montana 119 121   11,390 13,010   10.4 9.3
Nebraska 191 186   31,720 32,500   6.0 5.7
Nevada 410 386   23,980 26,930   17.1 14.3
New Hampshire 626 602   24,350 27,680   25.7 21.7
New Jersey 2,957 3,172   165,150 176,460   17.9 18.0
New Mexico 370 344   33,500 30,800   11.0 11.2
New York 5,846 5,627   272,930 306,810   21.4 18.3
North Carolina 1,794 1,974   135,380 138,790   13.3 14.2
North Dakota 53 66   8,420 9,360   6.3 7.1
Ohio 2,889 2,630   180,360 185,190   16.0 14.2
Oklahoma 447 544   NA 50,770   NA 10.7
Oregon 1,725 2,060   62,570 64,520   27.6 31.9
Pennsylvania 2,883 2,842   195,730 214,910   14.7 13.2
Rhode Island 309 269   19,660 18,060   15.7 14.9
South Carolina 524 577   51,030 53,230   10.3 10.8
South Dakota 82 74   9,420 10,120   8.7 7.3
Tennessee 681 669   65,120 67,040   10.5 10.0
Texas 5,930 6,308   383,180 408,710   15.5 15.4
Utah 683 684   43,030 49,690   15.9 13.8
Vermont 400 437   11,770 12,780   34.0 34.2
Virginia 1,077 1,094   220,180 251,720   4.9 4.3
Washington 2,221 3,286   154,610 171,780   14.4 19.1
West Virginia 100 103   16,100 17,150   6.2 6.0
Wisconsin 1,658 1,688   95,230 96,860   17.4 17.4
Wyoming 52 48   6,760 7,640   7.7 6.3
 
Puerto Rico 19 25   20,410 23,850   0.9 1.0
 

NOTE: Origin of utility patent determined by residence of first-named inventor.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Electronic Information Products Division/Patent Technology Monitoring Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents, January 1, 1963–December 31, 2006; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    (34.2–17.4)
  • 2nd quartile
    (16.6–11.2)
  • 3rd quartile
    (10.9–7.3)
  • 4th quartile
    (7.1–1.0)
  • No data

Quartiles

Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations: 2006
 
1st quartile
(34.2–17.4)
2nd Quartile
(16.6–11.2)
3rd Quartile
(10.9–7.3)
4th Quartile
(7.1–1.0)
No Data
 
Arizona Colorado Florida Alabama Idaho
California Delaware Georgia Alaska  
Connecticut Illinois Kansas Arkansas  
Massachusetts Indiana Kentucky District of Columbia  
Michigan Iowa Louisiana Hawaii  
Minnesota Nevada Maine Mississippi  
New Hampshire New Mexico Maryland Nebraska  
New Jersey North Carolina Missouri North Dakota  
New York Ohio Montana Virginia  
Oregon Pennsylvania Oklahoma West Virginia  
Vermont Rhode Island South Carolina Wyoming  
Washington Texas South Dakota    
Wisconsin Utah Tennessee    
 
SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Electronic Information Products Division/Patent Technology Monitoring Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents, January 1, 1963–December 31, 2006; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. See Data Table.

Findings

  • Nearly 90,000 utility patents were awarded to inventors residing in the United States in 2006, an increase of almost 7% from the 84,000 utility patents awarded in 2004.
  • In 2006, the national average for this indicator was 16.7 patents per 1,000 individuals in an S&E occupation, which was slightly higher than the average of 16.6 in 2004.
  • The state of Idaho typically reports the highest values for this indicator, reflecting the presence of a high-patenting Department of Energy National Laboratory in this sparsely populated state. In 2006, this may not be evident because the Idaho data for individuals in S&E occupations were suppressed.
  • Values for the remaining states varied widely, ranging from 3.4 to 34.2 patents per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations in 2006.
  • Nearly 25% of all 2006 U.S. utility patents were awarded to residents of California.

Description

This indicator shows state patent activity normalized to the size of its S&E workforce, specifically employees in S&E occupations. People in S&E occupations include mathematical, computer, life, physical, and social scientists; engineers; and postsecondary teachers in any of these fields. Managers, technicians, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel are excluded.

Although the Patent and Trademark Office grants several types of patents, this indicator includes only utility patents, commonly known as patents for inventions. Utility patents can be granted for any new, useful, or improved method, process, machine, device, manufactured item, or chemical compound, and represent a key measure of intellectual property. The Patent and Trademark Office classifies patents based on the residence of the first-named inventor. Only U.S.-origin patents are included.

The location of S&E occupations primarily reflects where the individuals work and is based on estimates from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, a cooperative program between the Bureau of Labor Statistics and state employment security agencies. Because of the different methods of assigning geographic location, this indicator is of limited applicability for sparsely populated states or for locations where a large percentage of the population lives in one state or region and works in another.

Data Table

Table 8-40
Patents awarded per 1,000 individuals in S&E occupations, by state: 2004 and 2006
 
  Patents awarded   Individuals in
S&E occupations
  Patents/1,000 individuals in
S&E occupations
State 2004 2006    2004 2006    2004 2006
 
United States 84,249 89,795   5,065,330 5,383,860   16.6 16.7
Alabama 375 357   57,560 66,100   6.5 5.4
Alaska 39 36   10,660 10,720   3.7 3.4
Arizona 1,621 1,705   95,380 98,110   17.0 17.4
Arkansas 132 138   22,150 24,860   6.0 5.6
California 19,488 22,275   693,670 730,010   28.1 30.5
Colorado 2,099 2,118   126,280 133,730   16.6 15.8
Connecticut 1,577 1,652   82,820 79,380   19.0 20.8
Delaware 342 357   17,980 21,550   19.0 16.6
District of Columbia 75 63   57,750 64,120   1.3 1.0
Florida 2,456 2,600   229,950 246,190   10.7 10.6
Georgia 1,326 1,487   141,710 136,470   9.4 10.9
Hawaii 76 84   16,360 18,940   4.6 4.4
Idaho 1,785 1,663   22,310 NA   80.0 NA
Illinois 3,162 3,294   219,530 222,470   14.4 14.8
Indiana 1,280 1,165   79,120 80,110   16.2 14.5
Iowa 658 666   39,280 43,670   16.8 15.3
Kansas 448 492   52,020 48,620   8.6 10.1
Kentucky 407 413   44,350 44,680   9.2 9.2
Louisiana 343 321   42,230 40,180   8.1 8.0
Maine 134 142   15,160 15,950   8.8 8.9
Maryland 1,313 1,410   154,310 159,470   8.5 8.8
Massachusetts 3,672 4,011   186,260 198,670   19.7 20.2
Michigan 3,756 3,758   183,140 208,520   20.5 18.0
Minnesota 2,754 2,957   119,380 125,930   23.1 23.5
Mississippi 136 119   23,190 24,910   5.9 4.8
Missouri 768 721   87,200 96,420   8.8 7.5
Montana 119 121   11,390 13,010   10.4 9.3
Nebraska 191 186   31,720 32,500   6.0 5.7
Nevada 410 386   23,980 26,930   17.1 14.3
New Hampshire 626 602   24,350 27,680   25.7 21.7
New Jersey 2,957 3,172   165,150 176,460   17.9 18.0
New Mexico 370 344   33,500 30,800   11.0 11.2
New York 5,846 5,627   272,930 306,810   21.4 18.3
North Carolina 1,794 1,974   135,380 138,790   13.3 14.2
North Dakota 53 66   8,420 9,360   6.3 7.1
Ohio 2,889 2,630   180,360 185,190   16.0 14.2
Oklahoma 447 544   NA 50,770   NA 10.7
Oregon 1,725 2,060   62,570 64,520   27.6 31.9
Pennsylvania 2,883 2,842   195,730 214,910   14.7 13.2
Rhode Island 309 269   19,660 18,060   15.7 14.9
South Carolina 524 577   51,030 53,230   10.3 10.8
South Dakota 82 74   9,420 10,120   8.7 7.3
Tennessee 681 669   65,120 67,040   10.5 10.0
Texas 5,930 6,308   383,180 408,710   15.5 15.4
Utah 683 684   43,030 49,690   15.9 13.8
Vermont 400 437   11,770 12,780   34.0 34.2
Virginia 1,077 1,094   220,180 251,720   4.9 4.3
Washington 2,221 3,286   154,610 171,780   14.4 19.1
West Virginia 100 103   16,100 17,150   6.2 6.0
Wisconsin 1,658 1,688   95,230 96,860   17.4 17.4
Wyoming 52 48   6,760 7,640   7.7 6.3
 
Puerto Rico 19 25   20,410 23,850   0.9 1.0
 

NOTE: Origin of utility patent determined by residence of first-named inventor.

SOURCES: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Electronic Information Products Division/Patent Technology Monitoring Branch, Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents, January 1, 1963–December 31, 2006; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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