Science and Technology in the Economy

Venture Capital Disbursed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product: 2006

  • 1st quartile
    ($8.51–$1.31)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($1.30–$0.29)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($0.28–$0.10)
  • 4th quartile
    ($0.09–$0.00)

Quartiles

Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product: 2006
 
1st quartile
($8.51–$1.31)
2nd quartile
($1.30–$0.29)
3rd quartile
($0.28–$0.10)
4th quartile
($0.09–$0.00)
 
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Colorado Arkansas Indiana Delaware
District of Columbia Connecticut Kansas Idaho
Maryland Florida Kentucky Iowa
Massachusetts Georgia Maine Louisiana
Minnesota Hawaii Michigan Montana
New Hampshire Illinois Mississippi Nebraska
New Jersey New Mexico Missouri North Dakota
North Carolina New York Nevada Ohio
Pennsylvania Oregon Oklahoma South Carolina
Rhode Island Texas Tennessee South Dakota
Utah Vermont Wisconsin West Virginia
Washington Virginia Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree Survey, special tabulations; and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The amount of venture capital invested in the United States increased approximately 10-fold, from only $11 billion in 1996 to a record $106 billion in 2000, before falling to $26 billion in 2006 (in current dollars).
  • In 2006, the state average for venture capital disbursed per $1,000 GDP was $1.98, which was larger than the $1.47 invested in 1996 but only about one-half the fraction of GDP invested in 2001.
  • Venture capital is concentrated in relatively few states. Companies in California received 48% of the total venture capital disbursed in the United States in 2006, followed by companies in Massachusetts with 11%.
  • The distribution of venture capital among states is becoming more limited. Twenty-one states reported lower values for this indicator in 2006 than in 1996.
  • The state distribution of venture capital was similar to that for the high-technology indicators.

Description

Venture capital represents an important source of funding for startup companies. This indicator shows the relative magnitude of venture capital investments in a state after adjusting for the size of the state's economy. The indicator is expressed as dollars of venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product (GDP). A high value indicates that companies in those states are successfully attracting venture capital to fuel their growth.

Venture capital investments represent a method of funding the growth and expansion of companies early in their development before establishing a predictable sales history that would qualify them for other types of financing. Access to this type of financing varies greatly in different states.

Data Table

Table 8-45
Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 1996, 2001, and 2006
 
  Venture capital disbursed
($thousands)
  State GDP ($millions)   Venture capital ($)/
$1,000 GDP
State 1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006
 
United States 11,270,035 40,664,265 26,075,607   7,659,648 10,058,169 13,149,033   1.47 4.04 1.98
Alabama 50,170 80,347 18,895   97,941 118,682 160,569   0.51 0.68 0.12
Alaska 0 0 0   26,083 26,609 41,105   0.00 0.00 0.00
Arizona 95,347 196,804 270,796   113,138 165,358 232,463   0.84 1.19 1.16
Arkansas 0 10,400 39,181   56,455 68,927 91,837   0.00 0.15 0.43
California 4,558,144 16,694,055 12,577,804   958,476 1,301,050 1,727,355   4.76 12.83 7.28
Colorado 318,354 1,263,862 643,352   116,045 178,078 230,478   2.74 7.10 2.79
Connecticut 142,694 535,779 247,117   126,744 165,025 204,134   1.13 3.25 1.21
Delaware 4,742 164,630 0   28,885 44,206 60,361   0.16 3.72 0.00
District of Columbia 7,113 162,181 114,927   47,560 63,730 87,664   0.15 2.54 1.31
Florida 412,331 895,125 317,110   362,950 497,423 713,505   1.14 1.80 0.44
Georgia 274,324 931,562 357,314   215,128 299,442 379,550   1.28 3.11 0.94
Hawaii 20,150 37,811 17,132   36,959 41,822 58,307   0.55 0.90 0.29
Idaho 133 2,700 0   28,152 35,631 49,907   0.00 0.08 0.00
Illinois 362,761 958,237 407,650   377,271 476,461 589,598   0.96 2.01 0.69
Indiana 22,766 53,755 68,932   155,512 195,196 248,915   0.15 0.28 0.28
Iowa 22,100 6,041 0   77,244 91,920 123,970   0.29 0.07 0.00
Kansas 25,162 39,923 11,000   67,965 86,430 111,699   0.37 0.46 0.10
Kentucky 31,097 23,855 34,710   94,987 115,113 145,959   0.33 0.21 0.24
Louisiana 13,660 80,450 11,450   114,967 133,689 193,138   0.12 0.60 0.06
Maine 1,467 3,878 7,649   28,636 37,129 46,973   0.05 0.10 0.16
Maryland 137,409 1,001,492 657,280   142,910 192,659 257,815   0.96 5.20 2.55
Massachusetts 1,075,645 4,779,022 2,874,103   208,288 280,509 337,570   5.16 17.04 8.51
Michigan 85,666 156,285 103,009   263,871 334,419 381,003   0.32 0.47 0.27
Minnesota 172,950 478,587 323,978   141,664 190,231 244,546   1.22 2.52 1.32
Mississippi 10,580 30,000 9,140   55,997 65,961 84,225   0.19 0.45 0.11
Missouri 47,881 248,870 62,058   145,044 182,362 225,876   0.33 1.36 0.27
Montana 0 24,820 0   17,998 22,471 32,322   0.00 1.10 0.00
Nebraska 10,436 58,963 6,500   48,317 57,438 75,700   0.22 1.03 0.09
Nevada 1,985 28,250 18,400   54,085 77,291 118,399   0.04 0.37 0.16
New Hampshire 42,628 224,616 75,857   34,823 44,279 56,276   1.22 5.07 1.35
New Jersey 402,077 1,510,888 780,017   281,806 362,987 453,177   1.43 4.16 1.72
New Mexico 22,412 14,215 30,118   43,658 51,359 75,910   0.51 0.28 0.40
New York 406,025 2,104,368 1,285,864   630,003 808,537 1,021,944   0.64 2.60 1.26
North Carolina 184,939 589,751 510,345   201,329 285,651 374,525   0.92 2.06 1.36
North Dakota 0 1,017 0   16,075 18,527 26,385   0.00 0.05 0.00
Ohio 162,972 233,615 43,508   305,413 374,719 461,302   0.53 0.62 0.09
Oklahoma 31,803 29,800 13,834   74,936 94,329 134,651   0.42 0.32 0.10
Oregon 94,973 233,391 143,287   91,166 110,916 151,301   1.04 2.10 0.95
Pennsylvania 305,140 960,191 763,712   325,515 406,713 510,293   0.94 2.36 1.50
Rhode Island 300 118,709 113,505   26,665 35,149 45,660   0.01 3.38 2.49
South Carolina 91,850 97,141 9,994   89,260 117,296 149,214   1.03 0.83 0.07
South Dakota 0 500 0   19,073 23,910 32,330   0.00 0.02 0.00
Tennessee 146,787 212,801 47,000   141,335 180,582 238,029   1.04 1.18 0.20
Texas 532,761 2,945,371 1,387,544   550,014 762,247 1,065,891   0.97 3.86 1.30
Utah 52,270 210,147 168,564   51,442 70,109 97,749   1.02 3.00 1.72
Vermont 2,000 11,600 10,143   14,632 18,828 24,213   0.14 0.62 0.42
Virginia 453,255 978,848 391,793   196,638 276,762 369,260   2.31 3.54 1.06
Washington 412,415 1,145,091 1,030,511   161,760 225,765 293,531   2.55 5.07 3.51
West Virginia 0 1,400 3,724   37,346 43,365 55,658   0.00 0.03 0.07
Wisconsin 20,361 93,121 60,300   141,755 181,936 227,230   0.14 0.51 0.27
Wyoming 0 0 6,500   15,732 18,941 29,561   0.00 0.00 0.22
 
Puerto Rico 4,080 32,000 14,291   45,341 69,208 86,464   0.09 0.46 0.17
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: GDP reported in current dollars. Preliminary Puerto Rico 2006 GDP.

SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree Survey, special tabulations; Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
  • 1st quartile
    ($8.51–$1.31)
  • 2nd quartile
    ($1.30–$0.29)
  • 3rd quartile
    ($0.28–$0.10)
  • 4th quartile
    ($0.09–$0.00)

Quartiles

Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product: 2006
 
1st quartile
($8.51–$1.31)
2nd quartile
($1.30–$0.29)
3rd quartile
($0.28–$0.10)
4th quartile
($0.09–$0.00)
 
California Arizona Alabama Alaska
Colorado Arkansas Indiana Delaware
District of Columbia Connecticut Kansas Idaho
Maryland Florida Kentucky Iowa
Massachusetts Georgia Maine Louisiana
Minnesota Hawaii Michigan Montana
New Hampshire Illinois Mississippi Nebraska
New Jersey New Mexico Missouri North Dakota
North Carolina New York Nevada Ohio
Pennsylvania Oregon Oklahoma South Carolina
Rhode Island Texas Tennessee South Dakota
Utah Vermont Wisconsin West Virginia
Washington Virginia Wyoming  
 
SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree Survey, special tabulations; and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.

Findings

  • The amount of venture capital invested in the United States increased approximately 10-fold, from only $11 billion in 1996 to a record $106 billion in 2000, before falling to $26 billion in 2006 (in current dollars).
  • In 2006, the state average for venture capital disbursed per $1,000 GDP was $1.98, which was larger than the $1.47 invested in 1996 but only about one-half the fraction of GDP invested in 2001.
  • Venture capital is concentrated in relatively few states. Companies in California received 48% of the total venture capital disbursed in the United States in 2006, followed by companies in Massachusetts with 11%.
  • The distribution of venture capital among states is becoming more limited. Twenty-one states reported lower values for this indicator in 2006 than in 1996.
  • The state distribution of venture capital was similar to that for the high-technology indicators.

Description

Venture capital represents an important source of funding for startup companies. This indicator shows the relative magnitude of venture capital investments in a state after adjusting for the size of the state's economy. The indicator is expressed as dollars of venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product (GDP). A high value indicates that companies in those states are successfully attracting venture capital to fuel their growth.

Venture capital investments represent a method of funding the growth and expansion of companies early in their development before establishing a predictable sales history that would qualify them for other types of financing. Access to this type of financing varies greatly in different states.

Data Table

Table 8-45
Venture capital disbursed per $1,000 of gross domestic product, by state: 1996, 2001, and 2006
 
  Venture capital disbursed
($thousands)
  State GDP ($millions)   Venture capital ($)/
$1,000 GDP
State 1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006    1996 2001 2006
 
United States 11,270,035 40,664,265 26,075,607   7,659,648 10,058,169 13,149,033   1.47 4.04 1.98
Alabama 50,170 80,347 18,895   97,941 118,682 160,569   0.51 0.68 0.12
Alaska 0 0 0   26,083 26,609 41,105   0.00 0.00 0.00
Arizona 95,347 196,804 270,796   113,138 165,358 232,463   0.84 1.19 1.16
Arkansas 0 10,400 39,181   56,455 68,927 91,837   0.00 0.15 0.43
California 4,558,144 16,694,055 12,577,804   958,476 1,301,050 1,727,355   4.76 12.83 7.28
Colorado 318,354 1,263,862 643,352   116,045 178,078 230,478   2.74 7.10 2.79
Connecticut 142,694 535,779 247,117   126,744 165,025 204,134   1.13 3.25 1.21
Delaware 4,742 164,630 0   28,885 44,206 60,361   0.16 3.72 0.00
District of Columbia 7,113 162,181 114,927   47,560 63,730 87,664   0.15 2.54 1.31
Florida 412,331 895,125 317,110   362,950 497,423 713,505   1.14 1.80 0.44
Georgia 274,324 931,562 357,314   215,128 299,442 379,550   1.28 3.11 0.94
Hawaii 20,150 37,811 17,132   36,959 41,822 58,307   0.55 0.90 0.29
Idaho 133 2,700 0   28,152 35,631 49,907   0.00 0.08 0.00
Illinois 362,761 958,237 407,650   377,271 476,461 589,598   0.96 2.01 0.69
Indiana 22,766 53,755 68,932   155,512 195,196 248,915   0.15 0.28 0.28
Iowa 22,100 6,041 0   77,244 91,920 123,970   0.29 0.07 0.00
Kansas 25,162 39,923 11,000   67,965 86,430 111,699   0.37 0.46 0.10
Kentucky 31,097 23,855 34,710   94,987 115,113 145,959   0.33 0.21 0.24
Louisiana 13,660 80,450 11,450   114,967 133,689 193,138   0.12 0.60 0.06
Maine 1,467 3,878 7,649   28,636 37,129 46,973   0.05 0.10 0.16
Maryland 137,409 1,001,492 657,280   142,910 192,659 257,815   0.96 5.20 2.55
Massachusetts 1,075,645 4,779,022 2,874,103   208,288 280,509 337,570   5.16 17.04 8.51
Michigan 85,666 156,285 103,009   263,871 334,419 381,003   0.32 0.47 0.27
Minnesota 172,950 478,587 323,978   141,664 190,231 244,546   1.22 2.52 1.32
Mississippi 10,580 30,000 9,140   55,997 65,961 84,225   0.19 0.45 0.11
Missouri 47,881 248,870 62,058   145,044 182,362 225,876   0.33 1.36 0.27
Montana 0 24,820 0   17,998 22,471 32,322   0.00 1.10 0.00
Nebraska 10,436 58,963 6,500   48,317 57,438 75,700   0.22 1.03 0.09
Nevada 1,985 28,250 18,400   54,085 77,291 118,399   0.04 0.37 0.16
New Hampshire 42,628 224,616 75,857   34,823 44,279 56,276   1.22 5.07 1.35
New Jersey 402,077 1,510,888 780,017   281,806 362,987 453,177   1.43 4.16 1.72
New Mexico 22,412 14,215 30,118   43,658 51,359 75,910   0.51 0.28 0.40
New York 406,025 2,104,368 1,285,864   630,003 808,537 1,021,944   0.64 2.60 1.26
North Carolina 184,939 589,751 510,345   201,329 285,651 374,525   0.92 2.06 1.36
North Dakota 0 1,017 0   16,075 18,527 26,385   0.00 0.05 0.00
Ohio 162,972 233,615 43,508   305,413 374,719 461,302   0.53 0.62 0.09
Oklahoma 31,803 29,800 13,834   74,936 94,329 134,651   0.42 0.32 0.10
Oregon 94,973 233,391 143,287   91,166 110,916 151,301   1.04 2.10 0.95
Pennsylvania 305,140 960,191 763,712   325,515 406,713 510,293   0.94 2.36 1.50
Rhode Island 300 118,709 113,505   26,665 35,149 45,660   0.01 3.38 2.49
South Carolina 91,850 97,141 9,994   89,260 117,296 149,214   1.03 0.83 0.07
South Dakota 0 500 0   19,073 23,910 32,330   0.00 0.02 0.00
Tennessee 146,787 212,801 47,000   141,335 180,582 238,029   1.04 1.18 0.20
Texas 532,761 2,945,371 1,387,544   550,014 762,247 1,065,891   0.97 3.86 1.30
Utah 52,270 210,147 168,564   51,442 70,109 97,749   1.02 3.00 1.72
Vermont 2,000 11,600 10,143   14,632 18,828 24,213   0.14 0.62 0.42
Virginia 453,255 978,848 391,793   196,638 276,762 369,260   2.31 3.54 1.06
Washington 412,415 1,145,091 1,030,511   161,760 225,765 293,531   2.55 5.07 3.51
West Virginia 0 1,400 3,724   37,346 43,365 55,658   0.00 0.03 0.07
Wisconsin 20,361 93,121 60,300   141,755 181,936 227,230   0.14 0.51 0.27
Wyoming 0 0 6,500   15,732 18,941 29,561   0.00 0.00 0.22
 
Puerto Rico 4,080 32,000 14,291   45,341 69,208 86,464   0.09 0.46 0.17
 

GDP = gross domestic product

NOTES: GDP reported in current dollars. Preliminary Puerto Rico 2006 GDP.

SOURCES: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Venture Economics, and National Venture Capital Association, MoneyTree Survey, special tabulations; Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data; and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

Excel.Source Data
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