Table 11 
Indicators of elementary and secondary school mathematics and science education 

Topic 
Indicator 

Student learning in mathematics and science 
• Elementary/middle school achievement in mathematics and science (longitudinal data) 
• Fourth and eighth graders' mathematics achievement (crosssectional data) 
• International comparisons of fourth and eighth graders' mathematics and science achievement (crosssectional data) 
• International comparisons of 15yearolds' mathematics achievement (crosssectional data) 

Teachers of mathematics and science 
• Degrees, certification, and experience of fifth and eighth grade teachers of mathematics and science 
• Professional development 
• Teacher salaries 
• Teachers' working conditions 

Availability and use of instructional technology 
• Access to computers and the Internet 
• Computer and Internet use in eighth grade 
• Distance education 

Student transitions to higher education 
• High school graduation rates 
• Advanced Placement (AP) mathematics and science coursetaking and test performance 
• International comparisons of secondary school graduation rates 
• High school courses and postsecondary success 
• Immediate college enrollment 
• International comparisons of college enrollment rates 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010 