Table 4-1
U.S. R&D expenditures, by performing sector and funding source: 2003–08
 
Sector 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
 
  Current $millions
All performing sectors 288,324 299,201 322,104 347,046 372,527 397,616
Business 200,724 208,301 226,159 247,669 269,267 289,105
Federal government 35,005 35,632 37,716 38,926 39,897 41,741
Federal intramurala 22,752 22,844 24,470 25,556 25,858 27,000
FFRDCs 12,253 12,788 13,246 13,369 14,039 14,741
Industry-administeredb 2,458 2,485 2,601 3,122 4,839 5,031
U&C-administeredb 7,301 7,659 7,817 7,306 5,892 6,023
Nonprofit-administered 2,494 2,644 2,828 2,941 3,308 3,688
Universities and colleges 40,484 43,128 45,197 46,983 49,021 51,163
Other nonprofit 12,111 12,140 13,032 13,469 14,341 15,606
             
All funding sources 288,324 299,201 322,104 347,046 372,527 397,616
Business 186,174 191,376 207,826 227,254 246,927 267,847
Federal government 83,618 88,766 93,817 98,036 101,764 103,696
Universities and colleges 7,650 7,937 8,579 9,307 9,993 10,600
Nonfederal government 2,742 2,883 2,922 3,021 3,249 3,453
Other nonprofit 8,140 8,239 8,960 9,429 10,593 12,020
   
Constant 2000 $millions
All performing sectors 270,971 273,335 284,962 297,444 310,913 324,791
Business 188,643 190,294 200,081 212,271 224,732 236,155
Federal government 32,898 32,551 33,367 33,362 33,299 34,096
Federal intramurala 21,383 20,869 21,648 21,904 21,582 22,055
FFRDCs 11,516 11,682 11,719 11,459 11,717 12,042
Industry-administeredb 2,310 2,270 2,301 2,676 4,039 4,109
U&C-administeredb 6,861 6,997 6,916 6,262 4,918 4,920
Nonprofit-administered 2,344 2,415 2,502 2,521 2,761 3,012
Universities and colleges 38,047 39,400 39,986 40,268 40,913 41,792
Other nonprofit 11,382 11,090 11,529 11,544 11,969 12,748
             
All funding sources 270,971 273,335 284,962 297,444 310,913 324,791
Business 174,969 174,831 183,862 194,773 206,087 218,790
Federal government 78,585 81,092 82,999 84,024 84,933 84,704
Universities and colleges 7,190 7,251 7,589 7,977 8,341 8,658
Nonfederal government 2,577 2,634 2,585 2,589 2,711 2,821
Other nonprofit 7,650 7,527 7,926 8,081 8,841 9,818
 

FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; U&C = universities and colleges

aIncludes expenditures of federal intramural R&D and costs associated with administering extramural R&D.

bIn June 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (approximately $2 billion in annual R&D expenditures in recent years) became industry administered; previously, U&C administered. This shift is one reason for change in trends apparent in R&D expenditure figures between 2006 and 2007.

NOTES: Data for 2008 are preliminary. Data based on annual reports by performers except for nonprofit sector. Expenditure levels for academic and federal government performers are calendar-year approximations based on fiscal year data. For federal government expenditures, approximation equal to 75% of amount reported in same fiscal year plus 25% of amount reported in subsequent fiscal year. For academic expenditures, respective percentages are 50 and 50, because those fiscal years generally begin on 1 July instead of 1 October.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series). See appendix tables 4-3 and 4-7.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010