Table 4-2
U.S. R&D expenditures, by character of work, performing sector, and funding source: 2008
Sector Total Business Federal
government
Universities
and colleges
Other
nonprofit
Total
expenditures
(% distribution)
 
R&D 397,616 267,847 103,696 14,053 12,020 100.0
Business 289,105 263,310 25,795 * * 72.7
Federal government 41,741 * 41,741 * * 10.5
Federal intramural 27,000 * 27,000 * * 6.8
FFRDCs 14,741 * 14,741 * * 3.7
Industry-administered 5,031 * 5,031 * * 1.3
U&C-administered 6,023 * 6,023 * * 1.5
Nonprofit-administered 3,688 * 3,688 * * 0.9
Universities and colleges 51,163 2,908 30,177 14,053 4,024 12.9
Other nonprofit organizations 15,606 1,629 5,982 * 7,995 3.9
Percent distribution by source 100.0 67.4 26.1 3.5 3.0 na
             
Basic research 69,146 12,222 39,379 10,188 7,357 100.0
Business 11,907 9,209 2,697 * * 17.2
Federal government 10,189 * 10,189 * * 14.7
Federal intramural 4,734 * 4,734 * * 6.8
FFRDCs 5,455 * 5,455 * * 7.9
Industry-administered 2,287 * 2,287 * * 3.3
U&C-administered 1,736 * 1,736 * * 2.5
Nonprofit-administered 1,432 * 1,432 * * 2.1
Universities and colleges 38,822 2,108 23,608 10,188 2,918 56.1
Other nonprofit organizations 8,229 904 2,885 * 4,439 11.9
Percent distribution by source 100.0 17.7 57.0 14.7 10.6 na
             
Applied research 88,578 53,827 28,649 3,169 2,934 100.0
Business 61,437 52,758 8,679 * * 69.4
Federal government 11,599 * 11,599 * * 13.1
Federal intramural 7,573 * 7,573 * * 8.5
FFRDCs 4,026 * 4,026 * * 4.5
Industry-administered 1,067 * 1,067 * * 1.2
U&C-administered 1,644 * 1,644 * * 1.9
Nonprofit-administered 1,315 * 1,315 * * 1.5
Universities and colleges 10,556 656 5,824 3,169 908 11.9
Other nonprofit organizations 4,985 413 2,546 * 2,026 5.6
Percent distribution by source 100.0 60.8 32.3 3.6 3.3 na
             
Development 239,891 201,798 35,669 696 1,729 100.0
Business 215,761 201,342 14,419 * * 89.9
Federal government 19,953 * 19,953 * * 8.3
Federal intramural 14,693 * 14,693 * * 6.1
FFRDCs 5,260 * 5,260 * * 2.2
Industry-administered 1,676 * 1,676 * * 0.7
U&C-administered 2,643 * 2,643 * * 1.1
Nonprofit-administered 941 * 941 * * 0.4
Universities and colleges 1,785 144 746 696 199 0.7
Other nonprofit organizations 2,392 312 551 * 1,530 1.0
Percent distribution by source 100.0 84.1 14.9 0.3 0.7 na
 

* = small to negligible amount, included as part of funding provided by other sectors; na = not applicable

FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; U&C = universities and colleges

NOTES: Data for 2008 are preliminary. Federal intramural includes federal intramural R&D and costs associated with administering extramural R&D. Funding for FFRDC performance chiefly federal, but any nonfederal support included in federal figures. State and local government support to industry included in industry support for industry performance. State and local government support to universities and colleges ($3,453 million) included in universities and colleges support for universities and colleges performance.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources (annual series). See appendix tables 4-3 to 4-10.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010