Table 4-3
Top 10 states in R&D performance, by sector and intensity: 2007
  All R&Da   Sector ranking   R&D intensity (R&D/GDP ratio)
Rank State Amount
  Business Universities and
Federal intramural
and FFRDCb
  State R&D/
1 California 77,608   California California Maryland   New Mexico 7.53 75.2
2 Massachusetts 24,557   Massachusetts New York California   Massachusetts 6.97 352.2
3 New Jersey 19,552   New Jersey Texas New Mexico   Maryland 5.34 264.4
4 Texas 17,853   Michigan Maryland Virginia   Washington 4.85 310.3
5 Michigan 17,402   Texas Pennsylvania District of Columbia   Connecticut 4.82 212.3
6 New York 15,939   Washington Massachusetts Massachusetts   Michigan 4.58 379.9
7 Washington 15,061   Illinois North Carolina Tennessee   California 4.31 1,801.8
8 Illinois 14,287   New York Illinois Washington   New Jersey 4.24 461.3
9 Maryland 14,130   Pennsylvania Ohio Illinois   District of Columbia 4.17 92.5
10 Pennsylvania 13,510   Connecticut Florida Florida   New Hampshire 3.71 57.8

FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; GDP = gross domestic product

aIncludes in-state total R&D performance of business, universities, federal agencies, FFRDCs, and federally financed nonprofit R&D.

bIncludes costs associated with administration of intramural and extramural programs by federal personnel and actual intramural R&D performance.

NOTE: Small differences in parameters for state rankings may not be significant. Rankings do not account for the margin of error of the estimates from sample surveys.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Industrial Research and Development, 2007; Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, FY 2008; Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development, FY 2007-2009; Survey of State Research and Development Expenditures, FY 2007. State GDP data are from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis,, accessed 29 July 2009. See also appendix tables 4-15 and 4-16.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010