Table 4-16
Share of academic R&D expenditures, by country and S&E field: Most recent year
(Percent distribution)
 
Field U.S.
(2007)
Japan
(2006)
Germany
(2002)
Russia
(2007)
Canada
(2005)
Taiwan
(2006)
Spain
(2006)
Australia
(2006)
Sweden
(2005)
 
Academic R&D expenditure
(PPP $billions)
50.24 17.62 9.64 1.59 8.16 2.03 4.31 3.83 2.34
Academic R&D 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
NS&E 91.2 67.4 78.8 81.4 80.3 86.3 63.1 74.0 78.9
Natural sciences 37.6 11.6 29.2 29.4 NA 17.9 23.1 29.9 19.2
Engineering 15.0 24.5 20.3 46.8 NA 40.9 23.4 11.7 22.8
Medical sciences 32.9 26.8 25.2 3.0 NA 19.9 14.1 26.9 31.8
Agricultural sciences 5.8 4.6 4.1 2.2 NA 7.6 2.5 5.4 5.1
Social sciences and humanities 6.7 32.6 20.7 18.6 19.7 13.7 36.9 26.0 19.5
Social sciences 6.5 NA 8.4 13.5 NA 10.8 22.3 20.5 13.1
Humanities 0.1 NA 12.4 5.1 NA 2.9 14.6 5.5 6.3
Academic R&D nec 2.1 NA 0.4 NA NA NA NA NA 1.6
                 
Academic NS&E
NS&E 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Natural sciences 41.2 17.2 37.0 36.2 NA 20.8 36.6 40.5 24.3
Engineering 16.4 36.3 25.8 57.5 NA 47.4 37.2 15.8 28.9
Medical sciences 36.0 39.7 32.0 3.6 NA 23.0 22.3 36.4 40.3
Agricultural sciences 6.3 6.8 5.2 2.7 NA 8.9 3.9 7.3 6.5
 

NA = not available

nec = not elsewhere classified; NS&E = natural sciences and engineering; PPP = purchasing power parity

NOTES: Data for following top 10 R&D-performing countries not available: China, France, South Korea, United Kingdom, and Italy. Additional countries included in top 15 of R&D-performance. Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Academic Research and Development Expenditures: FY 2007 (2009); and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD.Stat database, accessed 6 March 2009.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010