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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Elementary and Secondary Education


Elementary and Secondary Public School Current Expenditures as Share of Gross Domestic Product


Quartiles

Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product: 2007 (Percent)
 
1st quartile
(5.28% – 3.87%)
2nd quartile
(3.86% – 3.54%)
3rd quartile
(3.52% – 3.14%)
4th quartile
(3.09% – 1.22%)
 
Arkansas‡ Alabama‡ Arizona Colorado
Maine‡ Alaska‡ California Delaware‡
Michigan Connecticut Hawaii‡ District of Columbia
Mississippi‡ Georgia Idaho‡ Florida
New Hampshire‡ Indiana Illinois Louisiana‡
New Jersey Kansas‡ Iowa Nevada‡
New York Kentucky‡ Minnesota North Carolina
Ohio Maryland Missouri North Dakota‡
Rhode Island‡ Massachusetts Nebraska‡ South Dakota‡
South Carolina‡ Montana‡ Oklahoma‡ Tennessee
Vermont‡ New Mexico‡ Oregon Utah
West Virginia‡ Pennsylvania Texas Washington
Wisconsin Wyoming‡ Virginia
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey; and Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data. See Data Table.



Findings

  • The 2007 national average for spending on elementary and secondary education was 3.48% of the GDP, a slight increase from 3.28% in 1997. Among individual states, the value for this indicator ranged from 2.34% to 5.28% of the state's GDP in 2007, indicating that some states were directing a much higher percentage of their resources toward elementary and secondary education.
  • Spending for elementary and secondary public education as a share of the state's GDP decreased in 16 states and the District of Columbia during the 1997–2007 period.
  • States that spent the highest percentage of their GDP on elementary and secondary education are located in the eastern region of the United States. A number of EPSCoR states were included in this group.


Description

This indicator measures the relative amount of resources that local, state, and federal governments direct toward public education in prekindergarten through grade 12. It is calculated by dividing the current expenditures of elementary and secondary public schools by the state's gross domestic product (GDP). Current expenditures include instruction and instruction-related costs, student support service, administration, and operations and exclude funds for school construction and other capital outlays, debt service, and programs outside of public elementary and secondary education. State and local support represent the largest sources of funding for elementary and secondary education.

Financial data on public elementary and secondary education are reported by the National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Education. These data are part of the National Public Education Financial Survey and are included in the 2007 Common Core of Data, a comprehensive annual national statistical database that covers approximately 97,000 public elementary and secondary schools and 18,000 school districts in the United States. Current expenditures are expressed in actual dollars and their data year is the end date of the academic year. For example, current expenditure data for 2007 represent expenditures for the 2006–07 academic year. GDP data refer to the 2007 calendar year.

Data Table

Table 8-10
Elementary and secondary public school current expenditures as share of gross domestic product, by state: 1997, 2002, and 2007
 
  Public school expenditures
(current $thousands)
State GDP (current $millions) School expenditures/
GDP (%)
State 1997 2002 2007 1997 2002 2007 1997 2002 2007
 
United States 270,151,583 368,499,139 476,825,866 8,237,996 10,398,403 13,715,741 3.28 3.54 3.48
Alabama 3,436,406 4,444,390 6,245,031 102,433 123,805 164,524 3.35 3.59 3.80
Alaska 1,069,379 1,284,854 1,634,316 25,028 29,186 44,887 4.27 4.40 3.64
Arizona 3,527,473 5,499,645 7,815,720 127,370 171,942 245,952 2.77 3.20 3.18
Arkansas 2,074,113 2,822,877 3,997,701 59,182 72,203 95,116 3.50 3.91 4.20
California 29,909,168 46,265,544 57,352,599 1,019,150 1,340,446 1,801,762 2.93 3.45 3.18
Colorado 3,577,211 5,151,003 6,579,053 132,881 182,154 235,848 2.69 2.83 2.79
Connecticut 4,522,716 6,031,062 7,855,459 137,698 166,073 212,252 3.28 3.63 3.70
Delaware 788,715 1,072,875 1,437,707 35,488 45,324 61,545 2.22 2.37 2.34
District of Columbia 632,952 912,432 1,130,006 50,368 67,717 92,516 1.26 1.35 1.22
Florida 12,018,676 15,535,864 22,887,024 391,451 522,719 741,861 3.07 2.97 3.09
Georgia 7,230,405 10,853,496 14,828,715 237,468 306,680 391,241 3.04 3.54 3.79
Hawaii 1,057,069 1,348,381 1,998,913 37,546 43,476 62,019 2.82 3.10 3.22
Idaho 1,090,597 1,481,803 1,777,491 28,510 36,651 52,110 3.83 4.04 3.41
Illinois 11,720,249 16,480,787 20,326,591 403,982 487,129 617,409 2.90 3.38 3.29
Indiana 6,055,055 7,704,547 9,497,077 168,115 205,015 249,229 3.60 3.76 3.81
Iowa 2,885,943 3,565,796 4,231,932 81,923 97,356 129,911 3.52 3.66 3.26
Kansas 2,568,525 3,450,923 4,339,477 72,071 89,573 116,986 3.56 3.85 3.71
Kentucky 3,382,062 4,268,608 5,424,621 105,725 120,726 152,099 3.20 3.54 3.57
Louisiana 3,747,507 4,802,565 6,040,368 113,261 134,308 207,407 3.31 3.58 2.91
Maine 1,351,500 1,812,798 2,258,764 30,873 38,625 48,021 4.38 4.69 4.70
Maryland 5,529,309 7,480,723 10,198,084 154,139 204,120 264,426 3.59 3.66 3.86
Massachusetts 6,846,610 9,957,292 12,453,611 221,827 284,386 352,178 3.09 3.50 3.54
Michigan 11,686,124 14,975,150 17,013,259 298,994 349,837 379,934 3.91 4.28 4.48
Minnesota 5,087,353 6,586,559 8,060,410 155,938 198,558 252,472 3.26 3.32 3.19
Mississippi 2,035,675 2,642,116 3,692,358 57,954 68,144 87,652 3.51 3.88 4.21
Missouri 4,775,931 6,491,603 7,957,705 158,203 188,351 229,027 3.02 3.45 3.47
Montana 902,252 1,073,005 1,320,112 19,142 23,560 34,266 4.71 4.55 3.85
Nebraska 1,707,455 2,206,946 2,825,608 50,542 59,934 80,360 3.38 3.68 3.52
Nevada 1,434,395 2,169,000 3,311,471 59,917 81,274 129,314 2.39 2.67 2.56
New Hampshire 1,173,958 1,641,378 2,246,692 36,569 46,188 57,820 3.21 3.55 3.89
New Jersey 11,771,941 15,822,609 22,448,262 300,910 372,754 461,295 3.91 4.24 4.87
New Mexico 1,557,376 2,204,165 2,904,474 47,442 52,510 75,192 3.28 4.20 3.86
New York 24,237,291 32,218,975 43,679,908 654,750 821,577 1,105,020 3.70 3.92 3.95
North Carolina 5,964,939 8,550,546 11,248,336 228,864 296,435 390,467 2.61 2.88 2.88
North Dakota 577,498 711,437 838,221 16,316 19,880 28,518 3.54 3.58 2.94
Ohio 10,948,074 14,774,065 18,251,361 332,124 389,773 462,506 3.30 3.79 3.95
Oklahoma 2,990,044 3,875,547 4,750,536 78,019 97,170 136,374 3.83 3.99 3.48
Oregon 3,184,100 4,214,512 5,039,632 96,591 117,131 158,268 3.30 3.60 3.18
Pennsylvania 12,820,704 15,550,975 20,404,304 343,368 423,110 533,212 3.73 3.68 3.83
Rhode Island 1,151,888 1,533,455 2,039,633 28,506 36,909 46,699 4.04 4.15 4.37
South Carolina 3,296,661 4,744,809 6,023,043 97,397 121,582 151,703 3.38 3.90 3.97
South Dakota 627,109 819,296 977,006 19,804 26,416 35,211 3.17 3.10 2.77
Tennessee 4,145,380 5,511,452 6,975,099 153,405 191,525 245,162 2.70 2.88 2.85
Texas 20,167,238 28,191,128 36,105,784 599,492 783,480 1,148,531 3.36 3.60 3.14
Utah 1,822,725 2,374,702 2,987,810 56,590 72,665 105,574 3.22 3.27 2.83
Vermont 718,092 992,149 1,300,149 15,167 19,553 24,627 4.73 5.07 5.28
Virginia 6,343,766 8,718,554 12,465,858 211,921 285,759 384,132 2.99 3.05 3.25
Washington 5,587,808 7,103,721 8,752,007 178,334 231,463 310,279 3.13 3.07 2.82
West Virginia 1,847,560 2,219,013 2,742,344 38,795 45,032 57,877 4.76 4.93 4.74
Wisconsin 5,975,122 7,592,176 9,029,660 151,549 188,600 233,406 3.94 4.03 3.87
Wyoming 591,488 761,830 1,124,564 14,904 19,619 31,544 3.97 3.88 3.57
                   
Puerto Rico 1,796,077 2,152,724 3,268,200 48,187 71,624 NA 3.73 3.01 NA
 

NA = not available

GDP = gross domestic product

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), NCES Common Core of Data, National Public Education Financial Survey (various years); Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product data (various years); and Government of Puerto Rico, Office of the Governor (various years).

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010