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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Inputs


Federal R&D Obligations per Civilian Worker


Quartiles

Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker: 2007 (Dollars)
 
1st quartile
($13,453 – $805)
2nd quartile
($756 – $424)
3rd quartile
($397 – $276)
4th quartile
($235 – $115)
 
Alabama‡ Alaska‡ Delaware‡ Arkansas‡
Arizona Hawaii‡ Florida Indiana
California Maine‡ Georgia Kansas‡
Colorado Minnesota Idaho‡ Kentucky‡
Connecticut New Hampshire‡ Illinois Louisiana‡
District of Columbia New Jersey Iowa Nebraska‡
Maryland New York Michigan Nevada‡
Massachusetts North Carolina Mississippi‡ Oklahoma‡
Montana‡ Ohio Missouri South Carolina‡
New Mexico‡ Pennsylvania North Dakota‡ South Dakota‡
Rhode Island‡ Tennessee Oregon Wisconsin
Virginia Texas Vermont‡ Wyoming‡
Washington Utah West Virginia‡
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics. See Data Table.



Findings

  • Federal R&D obligations have increased appreciably from about $68 billion in 1997 to about $111 billion in 2007, an increase of 63% in current dollars.
  • In 2007, federal R&D obligations per civilian worker were concentrated in a few states; only 12 states and the District of Columbia exceeded the national average of $764 per worker.
  • Federal R&D obligations in 2007 varied greatly among the states, ranging from $4,029 to $115 per civilian worker. Higher values were found in the states surrounding the District of Columbia and in sparsely populated states with national laboratories or federal facilities.
  • EPSCoR states tended to be concentrated in the lower two quartiles of this indicator, showing that many EPSCoR states receive smaller amounts of federal R&D funding than would have been anticipated based on the size of their civilian workforce.


Description

This indicator shows how federal R&D funding is disbursed geographically relative to the size of a state's civilian workforce. Federal R&D dollars are attributed to the states in which the recipients are located.

Federal obligations for R&D come from the National Science Foundation Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development and include data reported by 11 federal agencies. The Department of Defense (DOD) disburses most—approximately 50%—federal R&D funding. The geographic distribution of DOD development funding to industry reflects the location of prime contractors only, not the subcontractors who perform much of the R&D. A high value may indicate the existence of a number of large prime contractors or major federally funded R&D facilities in a state.

The size of a state's civilian workforce is a nonseasonally adjusted annual estimate of employed workers based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, which assigns workers to a location based on residence. Estimates for states with smaller populations are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations.

Data Table

Table 8-34
Federal R&D obligations per civilian worker, by state: 1997, 2002, and 2007
 
  Federal R&D obligations
(current $thousands)
  Civilian workers   Federal R&D obligations/
civilian worker ($)
State 1997 2002 2007   1997 2002 2007   1997 2002 2007
 
United States 68,364,994 83,629,201 111,210,200   130,988,267 136,781,272 145,595,173   522 611 764
Alabama 2,213,683 2,704,834 2,203,409   2,035,156 1,994,748 2,105,951   1,088 1,356 1,046
Alaska 99,928 273,779 249,799   289,963 305,112 330,587   345 897 756
Arizona 732,065 2,057,261 2,345,659   2,196,901 2,512,714 2,913,695   333 819 805
Arkansas 95,709 141,267 166,582   1,177,143 1,204,467 1,293,852   81 117 129
California 13,731,238 15,686,055 21,313,080   14,780,791 16,180,799 17,208,903   929 969 1,238
Colorado 1,340,231 1,608,971 2,625,822   2,154,294 2,304,109 2,602,015   622 698 1,009
Connecticut 846,458 1,916,926 1,987,490   1,674,937 1,700,949 1,780,473   505 1,127 1,116
Delaware 48,964 78,846 127,615   378,117 401,301 427,766   129 196 298
District of Columbia 2,232,284 2,849,531 4,130,639   262,789 284,615 307,049   8,495 10,012 13,453
Florida 3,326,418 2,300,550 2,715,997   7,040,660 7,662,511 8,779,299   472 300 309
Georgia 3,919,868 2,019,248 1,326,052   3,751,699 4,135,381 4,602,947   1,045 488 288
Hawaii 150,722 375,159 343,581   566,766 584,354 631,911   266 642 544
Idaho 205,660 230,910 281,334   598,004 646,142 733,652   344 357 383
Illinois 1,140,163 1,693,942 2,115,154   5,988,296 5,969,393 6,361,750   190 284 332
Indiana 410,646 525,745 572,444   3,014,499 3,002,515 3,065,590   136 175 187
Iowa 228,180 404,545 602,947   1,555,837 1,567,836 1,598,261   147 258 377
Kansas 255,490 290,516 246,693   1,329,797 1,350,960 1,418,666   192 215 174
Kentucky 91,291 321,284 221,222   1,809,785 1,838,495 1,932,028   50 175 115
Louisiana 211,036 431,989 418,396   1,890,102 1,892,636 1,921,343   112 228 218
Maine 68,683 254,518 377,059   624,410 650,943 671,337   110 391 562
Maryland 7,328,937 7,192,243 11,578,771   2,646,200 2,733,103 2,873,512   2,770 2,632 4,029
Massachusetts 3,437,962 4,658,616 6,741,246   3,158,851 3,243,409 3,255,611   1,088 1,436 2,071
Michigan 735,221 1,244,244 1,709,933   4,748,691 4,724,998 4,659,927   155 263 367
Minnesota 609,395 1,150,839 1,383,666   2,605,673 2,749,525 2,796,737   234 419 495
Mississippi 289,791 622,714 423,671   1,200,845 1,214,631 1,231,743   241 513 344
Missouri 1,130,148 1,202,671 1,142,325   2,780,185 2,829,985 2,878,399   407 425 397
Montana 79,347 112,924 652,591   427,504 445,281 485,615   186 254 1,344
Nebraska 82,981 144,671 187,239   904,492 921,201 953,769   92 157 196
Nevada 295,042 335,989 298,924   895,258 1,066,477 1,271,472   330 315 235
New Hampshire 278,697 296,575 317,036   635,469 679,818 712,048   439 436 445
New Jersey 1,318,793 2,021,450 2,141,156   4,031,022 4,117,265 4,276,561   327 491 501
New Mexico 1,933,123 2,746,139 3,201,259   768,596 823,191 909,968   2,515 3,336 3,518
New York 2,471,213 3,746,837 5,061,983   8,416,544 8,721,428 9,087,278   294 430 557
North Carolina 900,947 1,390,440 1,824,802   3,809,601 3,930,736 4,308,624   236 354 424
North Dakota 53,015 102,136 113,203   335,854 333,605 354,003   158 306 320
Ohio 1,879,784 2,103,409 2,602,628   5,448,161 5,503,109 5,640,081   345 382 461
Oklahoma 160,356 271,565 225,577   1,543,105 1,602,118 1,657,964   104 170 136
Oregon 319,587 502,284 504,150   1,652,997 1,704,131 1,827,285   193 295 276
Pennsylvania 1,893,867 3,162,026 3,277,761   5,775,178 5,869,224 6,013,406   328 539 545
Rhode Island 403,844 501,299 627,538   504,147 525,721 547,927   801 954 1,145
South Carolina 166,607 371,006 417,465   1,819,508 1,840,598 2,011,255   92 202 208
South Dakota 41,955 58,679 61,925   383,216 402,397 429,495   109 146 144
Tennessee 566,242 961,149 1,658,662   2,640,005 2,714,992 2,893,748   214 354 573
Texas 3,640,162 3,374,405 5,426,669   9,395,279 10,115,299 10,992,828   387 334 494
Utah 319,826 408,747 765,138   1,034,429 1,113,645 1,325,480   309 367 577
Vermont 49,885 136,374 107,999   315,806 331,763 340,073   158 411 318
Virginia 4,849,753 5,756,339 8,753,773   3,323,266 3,588,079 3,930,984   1,459 1,604 2,227
Washington 1,226,154 1,998,915 4,708,365   2,822,223 2,877,022 3,253,475   434 695 1,447
West Virginia 193,061 254,239 216,621   746,442 749,164 771,837   259 339 281
Wisconsin 332,214 594,816 670,963   2,855,830 2,860,915 2,937,903   116 208 228
Wyoming 28,368 39,585 36,187   243,944 258,462 279,090   116 153 130
                       
Puerto Rico 58,943 135,294 85,850   1,132,658 1,169,760 1,241,426   52 116 69
 

NOTES: Only 11 agencies required to report federal R&D obligations: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security (established in 2002), Interior, and Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation. These obligations represent approximately 98% of total federal R&D obligations. Civilian workers represent employed component of civilian labor force and reported as annual data not seasonally adjusted.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Local Area Unemployment Statistics.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010