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Chapter 8. State Indicators

Financial Research and Development Inputs


Federal R&D Obligations per Individual in S&E Occupation


Quartiles

Federal R&D obligations per individual in S&E occupation: 2007 (Dollars)
 
1st quartile
($95,724 – $23,426)
2nd quartile
($22,915 – $12,295)
3rd quartile
($11,698 – $8,065)
4th quartile
($7,705 – $4,394)
 
Alabama‡ Alaska‡ Florida Arkansas‡
California Arizona Georgia Delaware‡
Connecticut Colorado Idaho‡ Indiana
District of Columbia Hawaii‡ Illinois Kansas‡
Maine‡ Iowa Louisiana‡ Kentucky‡
Maryland Mississippi‡ Michigan Nebraska‡
Massachusetts New York Minnesota Oklahoma‡
Montana‡ North Carolina Missouri Oregon
New Mexico‡ Ohio Nevada‡ South Carolina‡
Rhode Island‡ Pennsylvania New Hampshire‡ South Dakota‡
Tennessee Texas New Jersey Wisconsin
Virginia Utah North Dakota‡ Wyoming‡
Washington West Virginia‡ Vermont‡
 
‡ EPSCoR state

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development; and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. See Data Table.



Findings

  • The federal government obligated approximately $111 billion for R&D in 2007—about $20,000 for each person employed in an S&E occupation.
  • The state distribution of federal R&D obligations per person employed in an S&E occupation ranged from $95,724 to $4,394 in 2007.
  • The distribution for this indicator was highly skewed in 2007, with only 14 states and the District of Columbia above the national average. High values were reported in the District of Columbia and adjoining states and also in states where federal facilities or major defense contractors are located.
  • EPSCoR states tended to rank in the lower two quartiles for this indicator, showing that many EPSCoR states receive smaller amounts of federal R&D funding than would have been anticipated based on the number of S&E workers in the state.


Description

This indicator describes the relationship between federal R&D spending in a state and the number of employees in the state who work in S&E occupations. Federal R&D dollars are attributed to the states in which the recipients of federal obligations are located.

Federal obligations for R&D come from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development and include data reported by 11 federal agencies. The Department of Defense (DOD) disburses most—approximately 50%—federal R&D funding. The geographic distribution of DOD development funding to industry reflects the location of prime contractors only, not the numerous subcontractors who perform much of the R&D.

S&E occupations are defined by standard occupational codes. They include engineers and computer, mathematical, life, physical, and social scientists. They exclude managers, technicians, elementary and secondary schoolteachers, and medical personnel. State data on individuals in S&E occupations come from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, which surveys states' workplaces and assigns workers to a state based on where they work. Because OES data do not classify postsecondary teachers by field, in these data, faculty teaching in S&E fields are not counted as working in S&E occupations.

Data on people in S&E occupations are sample based. Estimates for states with smaller populations are generally less precise than estimates for states with larger populations.

Data Table

Table 8-35
Federal R&D obligations per individual in S&E occupation, by state: 2003, 2005, and 2007
 
  Federal R&D obligations
(current $millions)
  Individuals in S&E occupations   Federal R&D obligations/
individual in S&E occupation ($)
State 2003 2005 2007   2003 2005 2007   2003 2005 2007
 
United States 91,247 106,743 111,212   4,961,540 5,233,520 5,591,990   18,391 20,396 19,888
Alabama 2,933 2,800 2,203   56,380 62,790 69,650   52,020 44,596 31,630
Alaska 246 234 250   10,600 11,230 11,990   23,210 20,796 20,851
Arizona 1,857 2,674 2,346   92,120 96,410 102,380   20,156 27,741 22,915
Arkansas 140 154 167   21,340 24,660 28,460   6,547 6,255 5,868
California 17,410 19,380 21,313   676,180 716,530 753,570   25,748 27,046 28,283
Colorado 1,612 2,037 2,626   124,140 126,110 138,990   12,985 16,150 18,893
Connecticut 2,068 2,154 1,987   81,380 83,930 80,280   25,411 25,658 24,751
Delaware 91 94 128   17,370 18,010 22,140   5,261 5,228 5,781
District of Columbia 2,916 3,993 4,131   54,890 63,410 63,150   53,127 62,978 65,416
Florida 2,522 2,198 2,716   221,070 241,000 244,140   11,408 9,120 11,125
Georgia 1,514 1,707 1,326   144,170 137,580 136,880   10,503 12,411 9,687
Hawaii 350 384 344   16,090 17,460 18,740   21,731 22,016 18,356
Idaho 216 273 281   22,150 23,880 24,330   9,757 11,436 11,550
Illinois 1,900 1,983 2,115   211,230 221,630 225,180   8,996 8,946 9,392
Indiana 561 554 572   78,410 79,910 83,080   7,158 6,928 6,885
Iowa 465 448 603   37,320 40,300 45,430   12,466 11,108 13,273
Kansas 190 198 247   51,970 51,630 50,040   3,656 3,835 4,936
Kentucky 232 263 221   45,230 44,530 49,030   5,131 5,901 4,507
Louisiana 442 402 418   41,900 41,030 38,450   10,547 9,799 10,871
Maine 145 240 377   15,020 15,500 15,960   9,650 15,473 23,622
Maryland 7,804 12,211 11,579   149,250 160,120 162,540   52,291 76,264 71,238
Massachusetts 5,157 5,702 6,741   184,690 193,180 205,610   27,920 29,516 32,785
Michigan 1,673 1,105 1,710   182,940 192,150 212,040   9,146 5,752 8,065
Minnesota 861 758 1,384   117,120 120,930 129,840   7,354 6,270 10,659
Mississippi 1,174 424 424   22,190 23,480 25,520   52,900 18,062 16,614
Missouri 1,270 4,040 1,142   84,150 92,260 102,170   15,091 43,793 11,177
Montana 130 177 653   11,450 11,940 13,240   11,314 14,811 49,320
Nebraska 146 145 187   30,710 31,530 31,420   4,765 4,603 5,952
Nevada 409 382 299   22,330 24,400 26,920   18,330 15,675 11,107
New Hampshire 363 364 317   23,430 26,840 28,450   15,498 13,574 11,142
New Jersey 1,786 2,344 2,141   161,420 174,270 186,120   11,063 13,451 11,503
New Mexico 2,850 3,279 3,201   33,600 32,530 33,440   84,823 100,808 95,724
New York 3,973 4,956 5,062   272,440 289,010 322,520   14,583 17,147 15,695
North Carolina 1,611 1,791 1,825   132,440 134,290 142,970   12,163 13,340 12,765
North Dakota 102 105 113   8,430 9,070 9,660   12,070 11,589 11,698
Ohio 2,396 2,370 2,603   177,100 180,900 196,390   13,529 13,100 13,254
Oklahoma 274 254 226   44,360 46,370 51,430   6,185 5,469 4,394
Oregon 480 557 504   61,230 62,030 67,890   7,843 8,987 7,424
Pennsylvania 3,788 3,235 3,278   185,560 204,270 218,890   20,413 15,835 14,976
Rhode Island 523 572 628   18,740 18,080 18,400   27,927 31,651 34,130
South Carolina 412 408 417   48,740 50,460 54,120   8,447 8,094 7,705
South Dakota 55 70 62   9,150 9,460 11,550   5,988 7,398 5,368
Tennessee 1,039 1,293 1,659   63,680 66,390 70,820   16,320 19,474 23,426
Texas 4,757 4,989 5,427   365,270 389,550 441,410   13,023 12,806 12,295
Utah 650 814 765   45,570 45,110 51,340   14,268 18,043 14,901
Vermont 182 171 108   11,420 12,770 12,760   15,926 13,371 8,464
Virginia 6,213 8,214 8,754   209,280 236,650 254,710   29,687 34,711 34,368
Washington 2,292 2,388 4,708   150,230 160,960 183,900   15,257 14,834 25,601
West Virginia 367 773 217   16,220 16,040 16,560   22,651 48,163 13,104
Wisconsin 657 648 671   93,320 93,590 99,380   7,042 6,926 6,752
Wyoming 41 34 36   6,130 7,350 8,110   6,704 4,564 4,439
                       
Puerto Rico 112 101 86   19,940 20,950 NA   5,628 4,842 NA
 

NOTES: Only 11 agencies required to report federal R&D obligations: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security (established in 2002), Interior, and Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation. These obligations represent approximately 98% of total federal R&D obligations. National total for S&E occupations in the United States provided by Occupational Employment Statistics (OES). OES estimates for 2003 S&E occupations based on November data; estimates for remaining years based upon May data.

SOURCES: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Federal Funds for Research and Development (various years); and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates.

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

Source Data
 

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-01) | January 2010